Intellectual disabilityGene: ASNS Green List (high evidence)
Comment on list classification: New gene added by external expert and reviewed by curation team, enough evidence to support gene-disease association and relevance to this panel to rate this gene Green. From PMID: 29375865 (2018) A. Abhyankar et al. summarised Ruzzo et al. (PMID:24139043) studied nine children from four families presenting with similar phenotypes and reported two missense mutations‐c.1084T>G (p.F362V; NM_183356) and c.1648C>T (p.R550C; NM_183356) in the asparagine synthetase domain that dramatically reduce ASNS protein abundance. The authors concluded that accumulation of aspartate/glutamate secondary to ASNS depletion in the brain resulted in the neurologic impairment. One of the two mutations reported in that study, c.1084T>G (p.F362V; NM_183356), is four residues upstream of NP_001664.3:p.Gly366Glu seen in our patient. HEK293 cells expressing c.1084T>G (p.F362V; NM_183356) mutant allele showed dramatic reduction in protein abundance. Additionally, Ruzzo et al. reported a hypomorphic ASNS mouse knockout with structural brain abnormalities and deficits in learning/memory. Subsequently, eight more cases of ASNSD have been reported in the literature PMID: 2566342,27422383, 27469131, 27743885.
Created: 20 Feb 2019, 6:31 p.m.
Comment on publications: Added GeneReview PMID: 30234940 (2018) for Asparagine Synthetase Deficiency and PMID:27743885 (2017) first two cases (related) Japanese patients with ASNS deficiency with developmental delay and PMID: 29375865 (2017) reports two novel compound heterozygous missense variants in asparagine synthetase gene as the likely cause of fatal asparagine synthetase deficiency in a single neonate case.
Created: 20 Feb 2019, 6:23 p.m.
Comment on publications: Added GeneReview PMID: 30234940 (2018) for Asparagine Synthetase Deficiency and PMID:27743885 (2017) first two cases (related) Japanese patients with ASNS deficiency with developmental delay
Created: 20 Feb 2019, 6:11 p.m.
Comment on phenotypes: added phenotypes to indicate relevance to panel
Created: 20 Feb 2019, 5:54 p.m.
I don't know
Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the ASNS gene result in asparagine synthase deficiency (# 615574). A total of 5 such families have been described to date.
PMID 24139043 describes 9 individuals from 4 families (two of Iranian Jewish origin, one Bangladeshi and one French Canadian) all presenting with congenital microcephaly, profound intellectual disability and progressive cerebral atrophy. Individuals from the 2 Iranian families were unrelated but homozygous for a missense vaiant, considered to be a founder mutation in this population. The siblings from the Bangladeshi family were born to consanguineous parents and homozygous for a further missense variant. Subjects from the French Canadian family were compound heterozygous for two missense variants. Reduction in protein abundance was demonstrated in HEK293 cells expressing two of the identified variants but was not the case for a third one. In two of these subjects plasma asparagine were decreased whereas individuals from one family demonstrated increased levels of glutamine and aspartic acid (precursors in the ASNS-mediated synthesis of asparagine), consistent with a possible functional effect of these variants. An ASNS mouse model was thought to recapitulate the human brain phenotype.
One further affected child born to consanguineous parents from the United Arab Emirates is reported in PMID 25227173. This individual had a similar presentation consisting of congenital microcephaly, epileptic encephalopathy as well as severe psychomotor delay. Brain MRI demonstrated reduced cerebral and cerebellar volume and ventricular dilatation. Plasma amino acids, including asparagine levels were normal.
All the 4 missense variants in these individuals are (extremely) rare with no homozygotes in gnomAD.
Created: 12 Aug 2018, 1:16 p.m.
Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Asparagine synthetase deficiency, 615574
Publications for gene: ASNS were set to 24139043; 25227173; 30234940; 27743885; 29375865
Gene: asns has been classified as Green List (High Evidence).
Phenotypes for gene: ASNS were changed from Asparagine synthetase deficiency, 615574; congenital microcephaly, severe developmental delay, and axial hypotonia followed by spastic quadriplegia to Asparagine synthetase deficiency, 615574; congenital microcephaly, intellectual disability, progressive cerebral atrophy, intractable seizures
Publications for gene: ASNS were set to 24139043; 25227173
Phenotypes for gene: ASNS were changed from Asparagine synthetase deficiency, 615574 to Asparagine synthetase deficiency, 615574; congenital microcephaly, severe developmental delay, and axial hypotonia followed by spastic quadriplegia
ASNS was added to Intellectual disability panel. Sources: Literature
ASNS was created by Konstantinos Varvagiannis
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.