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Intellectual disability

Gene: MAN2C1

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MAN2C1 (mannosidase alpha class 2C member 1)
EnsemblGeneIds (GRCh38): ENSG00000140400
EnsemblGeneIds (GRCh37): ENSG00000140400
OMIM: 154580, Gene2Phenotype
MAN2C1 is in 2 panels

1 review

Konstantinos Varvagiannis (Other)

Green List (high evidence)

Biallelic pathogenic MAN2C1 variants cause Congenital disorder of deglycosylation 2 (# 619775). Mild to moderate impairment of intellectual development is a feature in most patients as in the OMIM's clinical synopsis for this disorder.
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Specifically, Maia et al (2022 - PMID: 35045343) report the clinical features based of 6 relevant individuals (4/6 aged 4-18years and 2/6 fetuses) from 4 families. These individuals had non-specific dysmorphic features (micro/retrognathia being the most common in 5/6), different congenital anomalies, variable degrees of ID (3/4), as well as brain MRI abnormalities (PMG in 3/6 from 3 fam, ventriculomegaly in 3/6 from 2 fam, callosal anomalies in 4/6 from 3 fam, cerebellar hypoplasia 2/6 - 2 fam, vermis hypoplasia 4/6 - 3 fam etc). Macrocephaly was reported for 2/6 individuals (2 fam).

While ID was observed in 3/4 individuals of relevant age (mild in 1/4, moderate in 1/4, unk in 1/4), delayed motor and language development was reported for all (4/4).

All individuals harbored biallelic MAN2C1 variants following exome sequencing (previous investigations not reported), and Sanger sequencing was used for validation and segregation (parents/sibs).

There were no putative pathogenic variants in known disease genes.

MAN2C1 encodes mannosidase, alpha, class 2c, member 1, an enzyme playing a role in deglycosylation of free oligosaccharides (fOSs). The latter are generated and released in the cytoplasm or the ER lumen during N-glycosylation of proteins. fOSs are generated from two different pathways (ERAD and LLO) with a defect in an enzyme of the NGLY1 already described to cause a NDD due to defect of deglycosylation. In a later step oligossaccharides are trimmed by the action of ENGase to form fOS containing one GlcNAc (N-Acetylglucosamine) residue (fOSGn1) at the reducing end. Processing of these fOSs by the cytosolic α-mannosidase (MAN2C1) converts Man7-9Gn1 to Man5Gn1 subsequently transported to lysosomes for degradation.

Variants incl. 3 missense SNVs incl. c.2612G>C/p.Cys871Ser, c.2303G>A/p.Arg768Gln, c.607G>A/p.Gly203Arg, one splice variant (c.601-2A>G/p.Gly201Profs*10) and one indel (c.2733_2734del/p.His911Glnfs*67). [RefSeq NM_006715.3]

Most were present in gnomAD with low AF ranging from 0.013% to 0.11% while c.2303G>A/p.Arg768 has an AF of 0.33% with 5 homozygotes(*) in the database. Conservation and in silico predictions supported their effect.

For the variant affecting the splicing acceptor site (c.601-2A>G) studies in patient fibroblasts confirmed skipping of ex6. Fibroblasts from 2 sibs cmp htz for Arg768Gln and c.601-2A>G (Gly201Profs*10) were studied for protein levels, demonstrating 90% reduction in the amount of MAN2C1. There was no truncated protein observed upon immunoblot. Protein abundance was not affected in fibroblasts from the individual who was homozygous for Gly203Arg.

Mannosidase activities were studied upon overexpression in a HEK293 model, with Gly203Arg presenting similar activity to WT and Arg768Gln exhibiting only a tiny residual activity. Cys871Ser showed increased activity compared to WT.

Using fibroblasts from controls and the same individuals as above, the authors showed that pathogenic MAN2C1 variants caused defects in fOS processing (delayed processing of high oligomannose species, reduced production of M5Gn1 with M8 and M9Gn1/2 species remaining at high levels) supporting a total/partial loss of mannosidase activity for Arg768Gln and Gly203Arg.

In MAN2C1-KO HAP1 cell lines, M7-M9Gn1 species accumulated while M5Gn1 - the product of MAN2C1 - were absent. Complementation of KO HAP1 cells with Gly203Arg, Arg768Gln and Cys871Ser suggested impaired fOS processing for Gly203Arg and Arg768Gln (with significant amounts of M7-M9Gn1 species). Cells complemented with Cys871Ser did not exhibit fOS processing defects.

The authors speculate that Cys871Ser could affect a non-mannosidase function of the enzyme relevant to brain development or that it might lead to abnormal inter-subunit interactions or tetramer formation.

Finally, Maia et al summarize findings in previously described Man2c1-KO mice (cited PMID: 24550399). These appeared normal, did not exhibit differences in growth or lifespan and did not present behavioral alterations. Man2c1-KO mice had CNS involvement with histological analyses in favor of neuronal and glial degeneration with multiple vacuoles in deep neocortical layers and telencephalic white matter tracts. Vacuolization was not observed upon brain histology for the 2 fetuses studied which Maia et al speculate may occur at a later stage. In KO mice there was considerable accumulation of Man8–9GlcNAc oligosaccharides.
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G2P includes MAN2C1 in it's DD panel (confidence: strong, MAN2C1-associated neurodevelopmental disorder with cerebral malformations). In PanelApp Australia, this gene is rated green in the ID, polymicrogyria, cerebellar hypoplasia and fetal anomalies gene panels.

Consider inclusion in the current panel with green (3 individuals/families/variants, role of the gene, NDD phenotype also reported for NGLY1-related disorder of deglycosylation, variant studies) or amber rating (ID not a universal feature, still DD observed in all affected individuals).

Please consider adding this gene in other relevant panels (as in PanelApp Australia, also for corpus callosum abnormalities, metabolic disorders, etc).
Sources: Literature, Other
Created: 31 Mar 2022, 11 p.m.

Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal

Phenotypes
Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Abnormality of nervous system morphology; Abnormality of the corpus callosum; Ventriculomegaly; Polymicrogyria; Abnormality of the face; Macrocephaly

Publications

Details

Mode of Inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Sources
Phenotypes
  • Global developmental delay
  • Intellectual disability
  • Abnormality of nervous system morphology
  • Abnormality of the corpus callosum
  • Ventriculomegaly
  • Polymicrogyria
  • Abnormality of the face
  • Macrocephaly
OMIM
154580
Clinvar variants
Variants in MAN2C1
Penetrance
unknown
Publications
Panels with this gene

History Filter Activity

31 Mar 2022, Gel status: 0

Created, Added New Source, Set mode of inheritance, Set publications, Set Phenotypes, Set penetrance

Konstantinos Varvagiannis (Other)

gene: MAN2C1 was added gene: MAN2C1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Other Mode of inheritance for gene: MAN2C1 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal Publications for gene: MAN2C1 were set to 35045343 Phenotypes for gene: MAN2C1 were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Abnormality of nervous system morphology; Abnormality of the corpus callosum; Ventriculomegaly; Polymicrogyria; Abnormality of the face; Macrocephaly Penetrance for gene: MAN2C1 were set to unknown Review for gene: MAN2C1 was set to GREEN