Intellectual disabilityGene: AP2M1 Green List (high evidence)
I don't know
As this single publication reports on one amino acid variant, I would request a second opinion from Richard Scott in the Genomics England Clinical Team as to whether this should be Green in both the ID panel (panel 285) and Genetic Epilepsy Syndromes panel (panel 402).
Created: 17 Jun 2019, 8:26 a.m.
Comment on mode of pathogenicity: Currently only one missense variant identified in all four cases. If this remains the case we would want to whitelist this variant in future rather than calling all variants in this gene.
Created: 9 Jul 2019, 8:39 a.m. | Last Modified: 9 Jul 2019, 8:39 a.m.
Panel Version: 0.199
Advice from the clinical team - "In view of four cases with the same variant and phenotype, supported by some evidence of altered gene function, I think this meets our criteria for inclusion." There was also concern that this was not a Founder effect, however the individuals were from very separate populations.
Created: 9 Jul 2019, 8:38 a.m. | Last Modified: 9 Jul 2019, 8:38 a.m.
Panel Version: 0.197
Expert review by Konstantinos Varvagiannis on AP2M1. Helbig et al. (2019 - PMID: 31104773) report on 4 individuals with developmental and epileptic encephalopathy due to a recurrent de novo AP2M1 missense variant (NM_004068.3:c.508C>T or p.Arg170Trp). Seizure types included atonic, myoclonic-atonic, absence seizures (with or without eyelid myoclonia), tonic-clonic etc. Hypotonia, developmental delay (prior to the onset of seizures at 1y 3m to 4y) and intellectual disability were observed in all four.
Initial two individuals identified by a semantic similarity analysis of phenotypic features in their cohort of 314 individuals with DEEs. Two additional individuals with the same AP2M1 de novo variant were identified when querying a diagnostic cohort of 2,310 epilepsy-affected individuals who had undergone WES.
Although a single variant, there are sufficient cases of ID/DD, from unrelated individuals to warrant a Green rating for AP2M1.
Created: 13 Jun 2019, 9:56 a.m.
Green List (high evidence)
Helbig et al. (2019 - PMID: 31104773) report on 4 individuals with developmental and epileptic encephalopathy due to a recurrent de novo AP2M1 missense variant (NM_004068.3:c.508C>T or p.Arg170Trp). Seizure types included atonic, myoclonic-atonic, absence seizures (with or without eyelid myoclonia), tonic-clonic etc. Hypotonia, developmental delay (prior to the onset of seizures at 1y 3m to 4y) and intellectual disability were observed in all four. Other features included ataxia (3/4) or autism spectrum disorder (2/4).
AP2M1 encodes the μ-subunit of the adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2). AP2M1 is highly expressed in the CNS. The AP-2 complex is involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis at the plasma mebrane of neurons and non-neuronal cells. This mechanism is important for recycling synaptic vesicle components at mammalian central synapses. Previous evidence suggests regulation of GABA and/or glutamate receptors at the neuronal surface by AP-2 (several references provided by Helbig et al.).
The authors provide evidence for impaired (reduced) clathrin-mediated endocytosis of transferrin in AP-2μ-depleted human HeLa cells upon plasmid-based re-expression of the Arg170Trp variant compaired to re-expression of WT. A similar defect was demonstrated upon comparison of the same process when WT and Arg170Trp re-expression was studied in primary astrocytes from conditional AP-2μ knockout mice.
Expression levels, protein stability, membrane recruitment and localization of the AP-2 complex in clathrin-coated pits were similar for the Arg170Trp variant and WT. As a result, the effect of the specific variant is suggested to be mediated by alteration of the AP-2 complex function (/impaired recognition of cargo membrane proteins) rather than haploinsufficiency.
AP2M1 is highly intolerant to missense / LoF variants with z-score and pLI in ExAC of 5.82 and 0.99 respectively.
As the authors discuss, heterozygous Ap2m1 mutant mice do not have an apparent phenotype. Homozygous mutant mice die before day 3.5 postcoitus, suggesting a critical role in early embryonic development (PMID 16227583 cited)
AP2M1 is currently not associated with any phenotype in OMIM / G2P.
As a result, this gene can be considered for inclusion in the epilepsy and ID panels probably as green (4 individuals with highly similar phenotype of DEE, relevance of phenotype and/or degree of ID, functional studies, etc) rather than amber (single recurrent variant - although this is also the case for other genes rated green).
Created: 31 May 2019, 7:03 p.m.
Mode of inheritance
MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Generalized hypotonia; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Ataxia; Autistic behavior
Phenotypes for gene: AP2M1 were changed from Seizures; Ataxia; Generalized hypotonia; Intellectual disability; Global developmental delay; Autistic behavior to Intellectual developmental disorder 60 with seizures, 618587; Seizures; Ataxia; Generalized hypotonia; Intellectual disability; Global developmental delay; Autistic behavior
Tag missense tag was added to gene: AP2M1.
Source Expert Review Green was added to AP2M1. Source Expert Review was added to AP2M1. Added phenotypes Seizures; Ataxia; Generalized hypotonia; Intellectual disability; Global developmental delay; Autistic behavior for gene: AP2M1 Rating Changed from No List (delete) to Green List (high evidence)
gene: AP2M1 was added gene: AP2M1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: AP2M1 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown Publications for gene: AP2M1 were set to 31104773 Phenotypes for gene: AP2M1 were set to Generalized hypotonia; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Ataxia; Autistic behavior Penetrance for gene: AP2M1 were set to Complete Review for gene: AP2M1 was set to GREEN
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.