Intellectual disabilityGene: CDH2 Amber List (moderate evidence)
Green List (high evidence)
Nine unrelated individuals with a neurodevelopmental/syndromic disorder and de novo variants in this gene. Although ID was a variable feature, you may want to consider including here as Green -- otherwise this gene-disease association is not covered by any of the paediatric rare disease panels as far as I can see.
Created: 1 Feb 2020, 1:06 a.m. | Last Modified: 1 Feb 2020, 1:06 a.m.
Panel Version: 3.0
Mode of inheritance
MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability; corpus callosum abnormalities; congenital abnormalities
Variants in this GENE are reported as part of current diagnostic practice
I don't know
CDH2 reviewd by Konstantinos Varvagiannis following a publication by Accogli et al. (2019 - PMID: 31585109) who reported on 9 individuals with de novo pathogenic CDH2 variants.
CDH2 is not in OMIM or Gene2Phenotype. There are >3 individuals/variants/families where ID is reported however it is not seen in all cases and in some cases is mild. Therefore classify CDH2 as Amber until more evidence is available.
Created: 24 Oct 2019, 2:49 p.m. | Last Modified: 24 Oct 2019, 2:49 p.m.
Panel Version: 2.1079
Mode of inheritance
MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
I don't know
Accogli et al. (2019 - PMID: 31585109) report on 9 individuals with de novo pathogenic CDH2 variants.
Overlapping features included axon pathfinding defects (corpus callosum agenesis/hypoplasia, mirror movements, Duane anomaly), cardiac, ocular and genital anomalies. Neurodevelopmental phenotypes included DD (8/9), ID (2/8 mild and 2/8 moderate, the remaining had either low-average/borderline int. functioning (2), did not present ID (2) or did not have relevant age for evaluation) and ASD (in 2).
CDH2 encodes cadherin-2 (N-cadherin) with high expression in neural tissue. As the authors note, the gene has important role in neural development, incl. proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells, neural tube formation, synaptogenesis, neuronal migration and axon elongation. N-cadherin, similar to other classical cadherins has an extracellular domain with 5 extracellular cadherin (EC) domain repeats that mediate cell adhesion either in cis or in trans (between molecules of the same / different cells).
Mutations in other cadherins have been associated among others with neurodevelopmental disorders (eg. PCDH19, PCDH12, etc).
Variants in all cases were de novo, identified following trio-WES. 7 missense variants (6 of which clustering within the EC4-EC5 linker region or the EC5 domain - calculated p=1.37x10-4) and 2 frameshift ones predicted not to lead to NMD were identified.
One individual had an additional DNM1 variant, formally fulfilling ACMG criteria for pathogenic. The authors however felt that presentation of the specific subject (low-average/borderline int. functioning, absence of seizures and microcephaly) was not compatible with the phenotype of DNM1-encephalopathy .
Missense SNVs within the EC4-EC5 region, were shown to impair cell-cell adhesion by affecting both self-binding and trans adhesion to wt N-cadherin (in L cells studied). This supported a possible dominant-negative effect. A single variant in the EC2 domain - previously shown to be critical for adhesion - was thought to have a similar effect. The authors speculated that truncating variants may also act in a dominant-negative manner (as has been demonstrated for other cadherins) although LoF remains possible.
Cdh2 knockout in mice is embryonically lethal. Conditional inactivation of Cdh2 in the cerebral cortex leads to cortical disorganization and CCA similar to the human phenotypes (PMIDs cited: 9015265, 17222817). Other animal studies (mouse, zebrafish, chicken, dog, etc) are also cited to link with specific defects.
Heterozygous CDH2 variants affecting the ectodomain have been associated with ARVC (2 variants, one of which segregated with the disorder in a 3-generation family, the other identified in two unrelated families with several affecteds - refs. provided in the article). Cardiac abnormalities were noted in several subjects (incl. electrical activity in 2). [Amber rating of this gene in Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy panel].
The gene is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM / G2P / SysID and not commonly included in panels for ID.
As a result CDH2 could be considered for inclusion in the ID panel probably as amber (mild/moderate ID in 4/8, uncertainty regarding the underlying effect of some variants or additional phenotypes (ARVC)) or green (>3 individuals/variants/families, ID is a feature and in some cases of moderate degree).
Created: 6 Oct 2019, 6:31 p.m. | Last Modified: 6 Oct 2019, 6:36 p.m.
Panel Version: 2.1062
Mode of inheritance
MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Abnormality of the corpus callosum; Abnormality of neuronal migration; Bimanual synkinesia; Duane anomaly; Abnormality of cardiovascular system; Abnormality of the eye; Abnormality of the genital system; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability
Gene: cdh2 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
gene: CDH2 was added gene: CDH2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: CDH2 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted Publications for gene: CDH2 were set to 31585109; 9015265; 17222817 Phenotypes for gene: CDH2 were set to Abnormality of the corpus callosum; Abnormality of neuronal migration; Bimanual synkinesia; Duane anomaly; Abnormality of cardiovascular system; Abnormality of the eye; Abnormality of the genital system; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability Penetrance for gene: CDH2 were set to unknown Review for gene: CDH2 was set to AMBER
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.