Intellectual disabilityGene: CLCN3 Amber List (moderate evidence)
Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark. There is enough evidence to promote this gene to Green at the next GMS panel update. Sufficient number of unrelated cases with relevant phenotype to add to the ID and epilepsy panels. Functional studies and animal model support pathogenicity. CLCN3 is also associated with a relevant phenotype in OMIM (MIM# 619512 and 619517)
Created: 22 Sep 2021, 12:58 p.m. | Last Modified: 22 Sep 2021, 12:58 p.m.
Panel Version: 3.1299
Green List (high evidence)
11 individuals reported, 9 that carried 8 different rare heterozygous missense variants in CLCN3, and 2 siblings that were homozygous for an NMD-predicted frameshift variant likely abolishing ClC-3 function. All missense variants were confirmed to be de novo in eight individuals for whom parental data was available.
The 11 individuals in the cohort share clinical features of variable severity. All 11 have GDD or ID and dysmorphic features, and a majority has mood or behavioural disorders and structural brain abnormalities:
- Structural brain abnormalities on MRI (9/11) included partial or full agenesis of the corpus callosum (6/9), disorganized cerebellar folia (4/9), delayed myelination (3/9), decreased white matter volume (3/9), pons hypoplasia (3/9), and dysmorphic dentate nuclei (3/9). Six of those with brain abnormalities also presented with seizures.
- Nine have abnormal vision, including strabismus in four and inability to fix or follow in the two with homozygous loss-of-function variants.
- Hypotonia ranging from mild to severe was reported in 7 of the 11 individuals.
- Six have mood or behavioural disorders, particularly anxiety (3/6).
- Consistent dysmorphic facial features included microcephaly, prominent forehead, hypertelorism, down-slanting palpebral fissures, full cheeks, and micrognathia.
The severity of disease in the two siblings with homozygous disruption of ClC-3 is consistent with the drastic phenotype seen in Clcn3 KO mice. The disease was more severe in two siblings carrying homozygous loss-of-function variants with the presence of GDD, absent speech, seizures, and salt and pepper fundal pigmentation in both individuals, with one deceased at 14 months of age. The siblings also had significant neuroanatomical findings including diffusely decreased white matter volume, thin corpora callosa, small hippocampi, and disorganized cerebellar folia. Supporting biallelic inheritance for LoF variants, disruption of mouse Clcn3 results in drastic neurodegeneration with loss of the hippocampus a few months after birth and early retinal degeneration. Clcn3−/− mice display severe neurodegeneration, whereas heterozygous Clcn3+/− mice appear normal.
Patch-clamp studies were used to investigate four of the missense variants. These suggested a gain of function in two variants with increased current in HEK cells, however they also showed reduced rectification of voltage and a loss of transient current, plus decreased current amplitude, glycosylation and surface expression when expressed in oocytes, and were suspected to interfere with channel gating and a negative feedback mechanism. These effects were also shown to vary depending on pH levels. The current of the remaining two variants did not differ from WT. For heterozygous missense variants, the disruption induced may be at least partially conferred to mutant/WT homodimers and mutant/ClC-4 heterodimers.
Both loss and gain of function in this gene resulted in the same phenotype.
Green for mono-allelic variants, Amber/Red for bi-allelic.
Created: 7 Aug 2021, 6:35 a.m.
Mode of inheritance
BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Mode of pathogenicity
Variants in this GENE are reported as part of current diagnostic practice
Tag Q3_21_rating tag was added to gene: CLCN3.
Gene: clcn3 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Mode of inheritance for gene: CLCN3 was changed from BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal to BOTH monoallelic and biallelic (but BIALLELIC mutations cause a more SEVERE disease form), autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Phenotypes for gene: CLCN3 were changed from Neurodevelopmental disorder to Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and brain abnormalities, OMIM:619512; Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures and brain abnormalities, OMIM:619517
gene: CLCN3 was added gene: CLCN3 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: CLCN3 was set to BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal Publications for gene: CLCN3 were set to 34186028 Phenotypes for gene: CLCN3 were set to Neurodevelopmental disorder Mode of pathogenicity for gene: CLCN3 was set to Other Review for gene: CLCN3 was set to GREEN gene: CLCN3 was marked as current diagnostic
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.