Intellectual disabilityGene: FGF13 Amber List (moderate evidence)
Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark. Three variants (c.31C>T, c.41G>C, c.32G>C) identified by WES/WGS in seven individuals from five unrelated families who presented with severe infantile-onset seizures and severe-to-profound ID. Supportive functional data.
Sufficient number of unrelated cases with relevant phenotype; however, early-onset epilepsy represents the main feature of the disorder and ID appears to be a secondary manifestation (see supplemental note in PMID:33245860 for clinical details). Therefore, rating Amber on this panel but will add the FGF13 gene to 'Genetic epilepsy syndromes'
Created: 22 Jan 2021, 3:56 p.m. | Last Modified: 22 Jan 2021, 3:56 p.m.
Panel Version: 3.726
Green List (high evidence)
Two sibling pairs and three unrelated males reported who presented in infancy with intractable focal seizures and severe developmental delay. The variants were located in the N-terminal domain of the A isoform of FGF13/FHF2 (FHF2A). The X-linked FHF2 gene (also known as FGF13) has alternative first exons which produce multiple protein isoforms that differ in their N-terminal sequence. The variants were located at highly conserved residues in the FHF2A inactivation particle that competes with the intrinsic fast inactivation mechanism of Nav channels. Functional characterization of mutant FHF2A co-expressed with wild-type Nav1.6 (SCN8A) revealed that mutant FHF2A proteins lost the ability to induce rapid-onset, long-term blockade of the channel while retaining pro-excitatory properties. These gain-of-function effects are likely to increase neuronal excitability consistent with the epileptic potential of FHF2 variants.
Created: 7 Jan 2021, 9:58 a.m.
Mode of inheritance
X-LINKED: hemizygous mutation in males, biallelic mutations in females
Intellectual disability; epilepsy
Mode of pathogenicity
Variants in this GENE are reported as part of current diagnostic practice
Gene: fgf13 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Phenotypes for gene: FGF13 were changed from Intellectual disability; epilepsy to Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy; Intellectual disability; Infantile-onset seizures
Mode of inheritance for gene: FGF13 was changed from X-LINKED: hemizygous mutation in males, biallelic mutations in females to X-LINKED: hemizygous mutation in males, monoallelic mutations in females may cause disease (may be less severe, later onset than males)
gene: FGF13 was added gene: FGF13 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: FGF13 was set to X-LINKED: hemizygous mutation in males, biallelic mutations in females Publications for gene: FGF13 were set to 33245860 Phenotypes for gene: FGF13 were set to Intellectual disability; epilepsy Mode of pathogenicity for gene: FGF13 was set to Other Review for gene: FGF13 was set to GREEN gene: FGF13 was marked as current diagnostic
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.