Intellectual disabilityGene: ADAT3 Green List (high evidence)
Comment on list classification: New gene added by external expert and reviewed by curation team, enough evidence to support gene-disease association and relevance to this panel to rate this gene Green
Created: 20 Feb 2019, 4:38 p.m.
Green List (high evidence)
Initially reported in PMID 23620220, the findings in several individuals with biallelic ADAT3 pathogenic variants (including also those from the first report) are summarized in PMID 26842963.
A total of 39 individuals from 19 consanguineous families are described in the two studies. These individuals were homozygous for a specific missense variant (probably a Saudi Arabian founder mutation).
The common phenotype consists of intellectual disability (39/39 patients) and strabismus (32/39). Additional features included failure to thrive (33/39), microcephaly (22/39), short stature (11 of 15 individuals for whom this was information was available).
Epilepsy was observed in some of these individuals (6/39).
A few facial features were more common, although there was no distinct facial gestalt. //
PMID 30296593 reports on 2 additional subjects born to consanguineous parents and found to be homozygous for the same missense variant. These individuals presented with features similar to the previous reports (although none of them was reported to have seizures). //
Of note, the variant is either referred to as V144M (using NM_138422.2 or NM_138422.3) or as V128M (using NM_138422.1 as a reference / c.382G>A) as in the initial report. [ClinVar : https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/clinvar/variation/183301/#summary-evidence] //
PMID 29796286 describes a 6-year-old female, born to consanguineous Iranian parents, investigated for developmental delay,intellectual disability, behavioral difficulties as well as microcephaly. A homozygous 8-basepair duplication in ADAT3 was identified by exome and was further confirmed by Sanger sequencing. This individual did not have seizures. //
This gene is included in DD/ID (but not epilepsy) panels offered by different diagnostic labs. //
As a result this gene can be considered for inclusion in the intellectual disability panel as green.
Sources: Expert Review, Literature
Created: 16 Oct 2018, 12:46 p.m.
Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
# 615286. MENTAL RETARDATION, AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE 36; MRT36
Variants in this GENE are reported as part of current diagnostic practice
Gene: adat3 has been classified as Green List (High Evidence).
Phenotypes for gene: ADAT3 were changed from # 615286. MENTAL RETARDATION, AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE 36; MRT36 to Mental retardation, autosomal recessive 36, 615286; MRT36
gene: ADAT3 was added gene: ADAT3 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Expert Review,Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: ADAT3 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal Publications for gene: ADAT3 were set to 23620220; 26842963; 30296593; 29796286 Phenotypes for gene: ADAT3 were set to # 615286. MENTAL RETARDATION, AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE 36; MRT36 Penetrance for gene: ADAT3 were set to Complete Review for gene: ADAT3 was set to GREEN gene: ADAT3 was marked as current diagnostic
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.