Intellectual disabilityGene: YIF1B Amber List (moderate evidence)
Comment on list classification: There is a sufficient number of cases to rate this gene Green at the next GMS panel update.
- PMID: 32006098: GDD was reported in all 6 patients (5 families). At ages 4-11yrs, the best achieved social and language skills were limited to sounds in 4 individuals, and partial babbling or vocalisation in the remaining two, respectively.
Created: 6 Oct 2020, 3:12 p.m. | Last Modified: 6 Oct 2020, 3:16 p.m.
Panel Version: 3.380
Green List (high evidence)
AlMuhaizea et al (2020 - PMID: 32006098) report on the phenotype of 6 individuals (from 5 families) with biallelic YIF1B truncating variants.
Affected subjects presented hypotonia, failure to thrive, microcephaly (5/6), severe global DD and ID (as evident from best motor/language milestones achieved - Table S1) as well as features suggestive of a motor disorder (dystonia/spasticity/dyskinesia). Seizures were reported in 2 unrelated individuals (2/6). MRI abnormalities were observed in some with thin CC being a feature in 3.
Variable initial investigations were performed including SNP CMA, MECP2, microcephaly / neurotransmitter disorders gene panel testing did not reveal P/LP variants.
YIF1B variants were identified in 3 families within ROH. Following exome sequencing, affected individuals were found to be homozygous for truncating variants (4/5 families being consanguineous). The following 3 variants were identified (NM_001039672.2) : c.186dupT or p.Ala64fs / c.360_361insACAT or p.Gly121fs / c.598G>T or p.Glu200*.
YIF1B encodes an intracellular transmembrane protein.
It has been previously demonstrated that - similarly to other proteins of the Yip family being implicated in intracellular traffic between the Golgi - Yif1B is involved in the anterograde traffic pathway. Yif1B KO mice demonstrate a disorganized Golgi architecture in pyramidal hippocampal neurons (Alterio et al 2015 - PMID: 26077767). The rat ortholog interacts with serotonin receptor 1 (5-HT1AR) with colocalization of Yif1BB and 5-HT1AR in intermediate compartment vesicles and involvement of the former in intracellular trafficing/modulation of 5-HT1AR transport to dendrites (PMID cited: 18685031).
Available mRNA and protein expression data (Protein Atlas) suggest that the gene is widely expressed in all tissues incl. neuronal cells. Immunochemistry data from the Human Brain Atlas also suggest that YIF1B is found in vesicles and localized to the Golgi apparatus. Immunohistochemistry in normal human brain tissue (cerebral cortex) demonstrated labeling of neuronal cells (Human Protein Atlas).
Functional/network analysis of genes co-regulated with YIF1B based on available RNAseq data, suggest enrichement in in genes important for nervous system development and function.
Please consider inclusion in other panels that may be relevant (e.g. microcephaly, etc).
Created: 7 May 2020, 7:04 a.m.
Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Central hypotonia; Failure to thrive; Microcephaly; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Spasticity; Abnormality of movement
Gene: yif1b has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Tag for-review tag was added to gene: YIF1B.
gene: YIF1B was added gene: YIF1B was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: YIF1B was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal Publications for gene: YIF1B were set to 32006098 Phenotypes for gene: YIF1B were set to Central hypotonia; Failure to thrive; Microcephaly; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Spasticity; Abnormality of movement Penetrance for gene: YIF1B were set to Complete Review for gene: YIF1B was set to GREEN
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.