Intellectual disabilityGene: TRIM8 Green List (high evidence)
Comment on list classification: TRIM8 was added to the panel and rated Green by Konstantinos Varvagiannis. Assoum et al, (PMID:30244534) summarises six patients with TRIM8 variants; four new patients plus two previous patients from Sakai et al., 2016 (PMID:27346735) and Epi4K Consortium (PMID:23934111). All six patients had global developmental delay and/or intellectual disability (summarised in Table 1). Therefore although TRIM8 is not currently associated with a disorder in OMIM or Gene2Phenotype, there are sufficient unrelated cases from multiple publications to support a Green (diagnostic) rating on the ID panel.
Created: 14 May 2019, 1:05 p.m.
Green List (high evidence)
PMID: 30244534 is a collaborative study reporting on the phenotype of TRIM8-related epileptic encephalopathy and summarizing the findings in previously published patients. Developmental delay, intellectual disability, seizures are common findings in the 6 unrelated individuals reported. Proteinuria was observed in 3 subjects.
Seizures were universal feature with highly variable age of onset (2 months to 3 years and 5 months).
Several individuals were investigated for developmental delay prior to seizure onset (eg. pat.1 had an MRI at 10 months, sat at 16 months, walked at 22 months and developed seizures at 2 years, pat.3 sat at 12 months, walked at 22 and developed seizures at 3 years and 5 months, pat. 4 and 5 had significant/severe delay prior to the age of 21 months when they started having seizures).
All variants reported to date are truncating, affecting the last (sixth exon) and as a result may escape nonsense-mediated decay. Since TRIM8 homodimerizes via its (upstream) coiled-coil domain and its C-terminal domain is required for nuclear localization, a dominant-negative effect is postulated by the authors. Haploinsufficiency appears less likely.
A previously reported patient (from PMID: 27346735) as well as an individual reported by the Epi4K consortium (PMID: 23934111 - among the co-authors of the present study) are included in the table of this article.
As a result this gene can be considered for inclusion in the intellectual disability and epilepsy panels as green.
Sources: Expert Review, Literature
Created: 17 Oct 2018, 2:36 p.m.
Mode of inheritance
MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures
Gene: trim8 has been classified as Green List (High Evidence).
Gene: trim8 has been removed from the panel.
gene: TRIM8 was added gene: TRIM8 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Expert Review,Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: TRIM8 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown Publications for gene: TRIM8 were set to 30244534; 27346735; 23934111 Phenotypes for gene: TRIM8 were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures Penetrance for gene: TRIM8 were set to Complete Review for gene: TRIM8 was set to GREEN
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.