Intellectual disabilityGene: TCF7L2 Amber List (moderate evidence)
I don't know
Dias et al (2021 - PMID: 34003604) describe the phenotype of 11 unrelated individuals harboring de novo missense/truncating TCF7L2 variants.
Features included DD in childhood (motor delay in 8/11, speech delay in 11/11), intellectual abilities ranging from average cognitive functioning to mild/moderate ID (the latter observed in 5/11), myopia (6/11) , dysmorphic features, variable orthopedic findings, and neuropsychiatric comorbidities incl. ASD (4/11) / ADHD (4/11).
One additional (12th) individual was excluded from this summary due to concurrent diagnosis of hypoxic-ischemic injury.
TCF7L2 on 10q25 encodes transcription factor 7-like 2, a high mobility group (HMG) box-containing transcription factor. As the authors discuss, the protein mediates canonical Wnt signaling. Secreted Wnt proteins lead to release of beta-catenin (CTNNB1) which after translocation to the nucleus acts with DNA-binding factors incl. TCF7L2 to turn on Wnt-responsive target genes. As a result TCF7L2 acts with beta-catenin as a switch for transcriptional regulation. Multiple alternative spliced TCF7L2 transcripts mediate it's function and specificity of transcriptional repertoire in a variety of tissues and contexts.
Dias et al provide references for its role in nervous system development incl. neurogenesis and thalamic development.
Variants in all cases occurred as de novo events with pLoF (stopgain, frameshift, splicing) ones predicted to lead to NMD. Missense variants occurred in all cases in or adjacent to the HMG box domain [aa 350-417]. 5 different missense variants affecting 3 residues were reported incl. c.1142A>C, c.1143C>G (leading to Asn381Thr/Lys respectively), c.1250G>T (Trp417Leu), c.1267T>C, c.1268A>G (leading to Tyr423His/Cys) [NM_001146274.1].
The gene has a pLI of 0.99-1 gnomAD/ExAC while there is a region of missense constraint encompassing the HMG box domain (the latter is an evolutionary conserved region mediating interactions with DNA).
No phenotypic differences were observed among individuals with pLoF and missense SNVs, and haploinsufficiency is presumed to be the underlying mechanism.
There are no variant or other studies performed, nor any animal models discussed.
In supplementary table 2, the authors provide several references to previous large scale sequencing studies with brief/incomplete descriptions of individuals de novo TCF7L2 variants and neurodevelopmental disorder (ID/ASD - Iossifov, De Rubeis, Lelieveld, McRae/DDD study and many other Refs).
Heterozygous TCF7L2 variants are thought to confer susceptibility to type diabetes mellitus (MIM 125853). Individuals reported by Dias et al did not have endocrine abnormalities including DM. A study by Roychowdhury et al (2021 - PMID: 34265237) suggests that regulatory variants in TCF7L2 are associated with thoracic aneurysm.
There is no other associated phenotype (notably NDD) in OMIM.
G2P includes TCF7L2 in its DD panel (Disease : TC7L2-related DD, Confidence:confirmed, Monoallelic, LoF).
SysID includes this gene within the autism candidate genes and current primary ID genes.
Consider inclusion in the ID panel with amber/green rating.
Created: 11 Aug 2021, 9:49 p.m. | Last Modified: 11 Aug 2021, 9:49 p.m.
Panel Version: 3.1217
Mode of inheritance
MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Autism; Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; Myopia; Abnormality of skeletal system
Green List (high evidence)
This gene is now associated with a relevant phenotype in Gene2Phenotype (confirmed). There is now enough evidence to support a gene-disease association. This gene should be rated Green at the next review.
Created: 6 Oct 2021, 2:25 p.m. | Last Modified: 6 Oct 2021, 2:25 p.m.
Panel Version: 3.1327
Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics). There is not enough evidence to support a gene-disease association so this gene has been given an Amber rating.
Created: 4 Dec 2020, 3:11 p.m. | Last Modified: 4 Dec 2020, 3:11 p.m.
Panel Version: 3.596
Green List (high evidence)
Additional 11 cases reported.
Created: 9 Sep 2021, 10:44 a.m. | Last Modified: 9 Sep 2021, 10:44 a.m.
Panel Version: 3.1262
A diabetes susceptibility locus associated with common SNVs, see OMIM for details.
PMID: 33057194 - Has been identified as a gene with significant de novo enrichment in a large trio study from the Deciphering Developmental Disorders study. 12 de novo variants (2 frameshift, 6 missense, 1 splice acceptor, 2 stopgain, 1 synonymous) identified in ~10,000 cases with developmental disorders (no other phenotype info provided, hence Amber rating).
Created: 4 Nov 2020, 9:16 a.m.
Mode of inheritance
MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Tag Q4_21_rating tag was added to gene: TCF7L2.
Phenotypes for gene: TCF7L2 were changed from Developmental disorders to Developmental disorders; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Autism; Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; Myopia; Abnormality of skeletal system
Publications for gene: TCF7L2 were set to 33057194
Gene: tcf7l2 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
gene: TCF7L2 was added gene: TCF7L2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: TCF7L2 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted Publications for gene: TCF7L2 were set to 33057194 Phenotypes for gene: TCF7L2 were set to Developmental disorders Review for gene: TCF7L2 was set to AMBER
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.