Intellectual disabilityGene: TRAIP Green List (high evidence)
Green List (high evidence)
Following advice from Genomics England Clinical Team TRAIP will be classified as Green. Advice was "In view of >3 cases with global delay spanning the moderate range, I would include it as green on the ID panel. The birth weight is in the lower end of the normal range, however I agree that short stature, and microcephaly in particular are striking features in mid -childhood. It is possible that GDD might present before the stature is clearly abnormal. Therefore I would include it. Knowledge of stature / head size can be used by clinical teams to assist with variant interpretation where relevant."
Created: 24 Jun 2019, 9:16 a.m. | Last Modified: 24 Jun 2019, 9:16 a.m.
Panel Version: 0.188
Comment on list classification: Comment on list classification: Made Amber awaiting advice from the clinical team. Gene was identified in literature PMID:30914295 as missing in PanelApp compared to other curated gene list for ID genes.
There are sufficient cases (>3) (PMID:26595769) from unrelated individuals However the main phenotype of TRAIP is dwarfism and so therefore unsure if the DD phenotype is relevant for this gene to be included in the ID panel.
Created: 19 Jun 2019, 4:51 p.m.
Comment on list classification: Gene identified in literature PMID:30914295 as missing in PanelApp compared to other curated gene list for ID genes.
TRAIP is in OMIM, with an associated phenotype of Seckel syndrome 9, 616777. Also in Gene2Phenotype and defined as TRAIP Disease: PRIMORDIAL DWARFISM.
Harely et al (PMID:26595769) provides a clinical summary of 3 unrelated individuals with TRAIP mutations and phenotypes relevant to this gene panel of mild-moderate developmental delay which was present in all individuals (Supplementary Note & Table). Two variants were identified, c.553C>T, p.Arg185* in two unrelated individuals and c.52C>T, p.Arg18Cys, all individuals showed very similar phenotypes.
Created: 4 Jun 2019, 3:24 p.m.
Mode of inheritance for gene TRAIP was changed from to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
gene: TRAIP was added gene: TRAIP was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Expert Review Green,Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: TRAIP was set to Publications for gene: TRAIP were set to 26595769; 30914295 Phenotypes for gene: TRAIP were set to Seckel syndrome 9, 616777
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.