Intellectual disabilityGene: PLXNA2 Amber List (moderate evidence)
Comment on list classification: New gene added by Konstantinos Varvagiannis (Other). This gene is not associated with a phenotype in OMIM or Gene2Phenotype. As there are currently only 2 cases there is not enough evidence to support a gene-disease association. Therefore, this gene has been given an Amber rating.
Created: 6 Oct 2021, 2:14 p.m. | Last Modified: 6 Oct 2021, 2:14 p.m.
Panel Version: 3.1325
I don't know
Altuame et al (2021 - PMID: 34327814) describe 3 individuals from 2 consanguineous Arab families with biallelic PLXNA2 variants.
The index patient from the 1st family presented with CHD (hypoplastic right ventricle, ASD), DD and moderate ID (IQ of 40), failure to thrive as well as some dysmorphic features (obtuse mandibular angle, mild overbite, synophrys with downslanting p-f, strabismus, etc). There were additional features (eg. postaxial polydactyly) which were found in other affected and unaffected family members.
Exome sequencing with autozygome analysis revealed homozygosity for a PLXNA2 stopgain variant (NM_025179:c.3603C>A / p.(Cys1201*)).
Sanger confirmation was carried out and segregation analyses confirmed carrier status of the unaffected parents and a sib as well as a brother homozygous for the same variant. Clinical evaluation of the latter, following this finding revealed borderline intellectual functioning, ADHD, failure to thrive. There was no mandibular anomaly or overbite and no clinical evidence of CHD (no echo performed).
The index patient from the 2nd consanguineous family was evaluated for ID (IQ of 63), with previous borderline motor development, ADHD and some dysmorphic features (obtuse mandibular angle and overbite). There was no clinical evidence of CHD (no echo performed).
Exome sequencing with autozygosity mapping revealed a homozygous missense PLXNA2 variant (c.3073G>A / p.(Asp1025Asn), present only once in gnomAD (htz), with rather non-concordant in silico predictions SIFT 0.22, PolyPhen 0.682 and CADD 23.5. The aa was however highly conserved.
Segregation analysis confirmed carrier state of the parents and 2 unaffected sibs, with a 3rd sib homozygous for the wt allele.
As the authors discuss:
*PLXNA2 belongs to the plexin family of genes, encoding transmbembrane proteins functioning as semaphorin receptors. It has predominant expression in neural tissue. The protein is thought to bind semaphorin-3A, -3C or -5 followed by plexin A2 dimerization, activation of its GTPase-activating protein domain, negative regulation of Rap1B GTPase and initiation of a signal transduction cascade mediating axonal repulsion/guidance, dendritic guidance, neuronal migration.
*Murine Plxna2 knockout models display structural brain defects. In addition they display congenital heart defects incl. persistent truncus arteriosus and interrupted aortic arch.
*Rare CNVs in adult humans with tetralogy of Fallot have suggested a potential role of PLXNA2 in cardiac development and CHD.
*Expression and the role of PLXNA2 in human chondrocytes as well as a GWAS in 240 japanese patients with mandibular prognathism where PLXNA2 was suggested as a susceptibility locus.
Overall, the authors recognize some common features (as for cognitive functioning, some dysmorphic features incl. obtuse mandibular angle and overbite in 2 unrelated subjects, failure to thrive 3/3) and provide plausible explanations for the variability / discordance of others eg:
- Cyanotic heart disease explaining discordance in cognitive outcome among sibs
- Incomplete penetrance for CHD (and/or ID or mandibular anomaly) as for few AR disorders and/or
- Additional pathogenic variants possibly explaining the CHD in the first subject.
There is no associated phenotype in OMIM or G2P. SysID includes PLXNA2 among the candidate ID genes.
Sources: Literature, Other
Created: 14 Aug 2021, 4:52 p.m. | Last Modified: 14 Aug 2021, 4:54 p.m.
Panel Version: 3.1220
Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability; Abnormality of the face; Failure to thrive; Abnormal heart morphology
Gene: plxna2 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Phenotypes for gene: PLXNA2 were changed from Intellectual disability; Abnormality of the face; Failure to thrive; Abnormal heart morphology to Intellectual disability, MONDO:0001071; Abnormality of the face; Failure to thrive; Abnormal heart morphology
Tag watchlist tag was added to gene: PLXNA2.
gene: PLXNA2 was added gene: PLXNA2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Other Mode of inheritance for gene: PLXNA2 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal Publications for gene: PLXNA2 were set to 34327814 Phenotypes for gene: PLXNA2 were set to Intellectual disability; Abnormality of the face; Failure to thrive; Abnormal heart morphology Penetrance for gene: PLXNA2 were set to Incomplete Review for gene: PLXNA2 was set to AMBER
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.