Intellectual disabilityGene: MADD Amber List (moderate evidence)
Comment on list classification: Based on expert review provided by Konstantinos Varvagiannis and Zornitza Stark, there is enough evidence to support a gene-disease association. This gene has been promoted from Red to Amber and will be promoted to Green status at next panel review.
Created: 8 Oct 2020, 2:04 p.m. | Last Modified: 8 Oct 2020, 2:04 p.m.
Panel Version: 3.393
Green List (high evidence)
There are 3 reports on the phenotype of individuals with biallelic pathogenic MADD variants. Clinical presentation appears to be relevant for inclusion of this gene in both ID and epilepsy panels. A recent study provides extensive clinical details and suggests that the phenotype may range from DD/ID to a severe pleiotropic disorder characterized by severe DD (and ID), sensory and autonomic dysfunction, exocrine and endocrine insufficiency and haematological anomalies). Seizures have been reported in several individuals with either presentation.
Anazi et al (2017 - PMID: 28940097) identified MADD as a potential ID gene. The authors described a girl with profound DD and seizures among other features. The child, deceased at the age of 14m, was born to consanguineous Saoudi parents and was found to harbour a homozygous missense SNV [NM_003682.3:c.2930T>G:p.(Val977Gly)]. Through GeneMatcher, the authors identified a further 6 y.o. girl, compound heterozygous for a missense and a stopgain variant [NM_003682.3:c.593G>A:p.(Arg198His) and c.979C>T:p.(Arg327*)]. The child had normal development and milestones until the age of 15m, when she demonstrated delay in speech, social interactions, poor eye contact and was later diagnosed with ASD.
Hu et al (2019 - PMID: 29302074) provided details on a 22- and 30- y.o. female born to (reportedly) unrelated parents. Formal evaluation (WAIS-IV) suggested ID in the mild to moderate range(IQs of 50 and 60 respectively). Both were homozygous for an indel [NM_003682:c.3559del / p.(Met1187*)].
Schneeberger et al (2020 - PMID: 32761064) report on 23 affected subjects.
The authors categorized the phenotypes in 2 groups. 9 individuals belonging to group 1 presented with hypotonia, DD (9/9) with speech impaiment, ID (5/5) and seizures (6/9). 14 patients, belonging to group 2 had DD (9/9 - severe), ID (3/3), seizures (9/14), endo- and exocrine dysfunction, impairment of sensory and autonomic nervous system, haematological anomalies. The course was fatal in some cases, within the later group. Some facial features appeared to be more frequent (e.g. full cheeks, small mouth, tented upper lip - small palpebral fissures in some, etc). Genital anomalies were also common in males from both groups.
All were found to harbor biallelic MADD variants (21 different - missense and pLoF SNVs as well as an intragenic deletion). Variants in all cases affected all 7 isoforms. Data did not allow genotype-phenotype correlations e.g. individuals with missense and a pLoF variant (in trans) were identified within either group.
Studies using patient-derived fibroblasts supported the role of the variants, e.g. lower mRNA levels for those where NMD would apply, deficiency or drastic reduction of the protein upon immunobloting (also the case for missense variants) and mRNA analyses demonstrating aberrant transcripts for 2 relevant variants.
MADD encodes the MAPK-activating protein containing a death domain implicated among others in neurotransmission (Rab3 GEF and effector playing a role in formation/trafficking of synaptic vessicles), cell survival (pro-apoptotic effects/protection against apoptosis upon TNF-a treatment), etc. The gene has relevant expression pattern in fetal and adult brain (discussed by Hu et al).
Studies in patient fibroblasts provide evidence of reduced activation of MAP kinases ERK1/2 upon treatment with TNF-a, activation of the intrinsic (TNF-a-dependent-) apoptosis. MADD deficiency was shown to result to decreased EGF endocytosis (likely mediated by Rab3).
Mouse model further supports the role of MADD (summary by MGI: "Mice homozygous for a knock-out allele die shortly after birth due to respiratory failure, are hyporesponsive to tactile stimuli, and exhibit defects in neurotransmitter release with impaired synaptic vesicle trafficking and depletion of synaptic vesicles at the neuromuscular junction.").
You may consider inclusion in other gene panels e.g. for hematologic (low Hb and thrombocytopenia in several) or GI (e.g diarrhea) disorders.
Created: 9 Aug 2020, 12:47 p.m. | Last Modified: 9 Aug 2020, 12:47 p.m.
Panel Version: 3.239
Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Global developmental delay / Intellectual disability / Seizures; Global developmental delay / Intellectual disability / Seizures / Abnormality of the endocrine system / Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency / Constipation / Diarrhea / Anemia / Thrombocytopenia / Abnormality of the autonomic nervous system
Green List (high evidence)
Anazi et al report 2 unrelated families with ID and biallelic variants. No specific functional data for variants but MADD is a regulator of neurotransmitter release and mouse model exhibits severe neuronal defects with early lethality (Del Villar and Miller 2004; Tanaka et al. 2001)
Created: 6 Mar 2020, 10 a.m. | Last Modified: 6 Mar 2020, 10 a.m.
Panel Version: 3.3
Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Variants in this GENE are reported as part of current diagnostic practice
Tag for-review tag was added to gene: MADD.
Gene: madd has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Publications for gene: MADD were set to
Phenotypes for gene: MADD were changed from to Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies, impaired speech and hypotonia, 619005; DEEAH syndrome, 619004
gene: MADD was added gene: MADD was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Victorian Clinical Genetics Services Mode of inheritance for gene: MADD was set to
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.