Intellectual disabilityGene: LMNB1
There is an additional report on LMBN1/2-associated phenotypes supporting green rating of the gene in the current panel.
Parry et al (2020 - PMID: 33033404) in a study to identify novel microcephaly genes using the DDD and 100k genomes project (100kGP) patient cohort, report on the phenotype of 13 individuals with heterozygous variant in LMNB1 (N=7) and LMNB2 (N=6).
LMNB1 : The authors identified 3 recurrent variants (c.97A>G - p.Lys33Glu (3), c.97_99del - p.Lys33del (2) , c.269G>C - p.Arg90Pro (2) / NM_005573.4) in seven individuals (3 from the DDD study, 4 from the 100kGP). In all cases were segregation studies were possible, the variant had occurred as a de novo event.
LMNB2 : 4 individuals from the DDD cohort and 1 from the 100kGP were found to harbor the same missense SNV (NM_032737.4:c.1192G>A, p.Glu398Lys). The variant had occurred de novo in 3 subjects and was inherited from a mosaic - unaffected - parent in a further case. Another individual was found to harbor c.160A>C - p.Asn54His.
LMNB1/2 common phenotypes :
All cases had congenital microcephaly (OFC -5.85 +/- 1.14 SD) appart from one individual, without history of IUGR or postnatally abnormal height (the latter in most).
Neuroimaging suggested structurally normal brain without abnormal migration. Gyral simplification / global reduction in white matter / increased extra axial spaces / enlarged ventricles were reported in 2.
LMNB1 - Global developmental delay was a feature in all (mild to severe) with some having occasional words at 7y (P3), absent speech (P9 - age category 5-10y) or ID not further specified (P13).
LMNB2 - DD was a feature in all 6 subjects (5/6 moderate to severe - 1/6 GDD). 5/6 were 10y or older with language (in 3 language not achieved) and motor deficits (walking not achieved in 1/6 - occured at the age of 6y in 1/6).
Facial features were not consistent nor suggestive of a syndromic diagnosis (sloping forehead in some).
Overall, as the authors comment, the phenotype corresponded to a severe nonsyndromic microcephaly (although additional features were reported in some).
Microcephaly is supported by Lmnb1 ko mouse model. Lmnb1/2 ko mice however display migration defects, while Lmnb2 ko mice do not have reduced size at birth. Heterozygous Lmnb1 mice do not present microcephaly. It is suggested that while animal models support a similar (to the human) phenotype the underlying mechanism is different.
Variant effect :
variants were shown to affect highly conserved residues within the lamin a-helical rod-domain. As affected residues are conserved in LMNA, modelling with available LMNA PDB structures, suggested disrupted interactions required for higher-order assembly of lamin filaments.
Recurrence of specific variants at specific residues, absence of pLoF ones, the htz mouse Lmnb1 phenotype (absence of microcephaly) and the proposed mechanism (perturbation of complex formation) suggest a gain-of-function/dominant-negative effect rather than happloinsufficiency.
[Please also note the additional OMIM phenotypes for LMNB1 / LMNB2 - not here reviewed]
Created: 17 Oct 2020, 12:05 p.m. | Last Modified: 17 Oct 2020, 12:05 p.m.
Panel Version: 3.456
Cristofoli et al (2020 - PMID: 32910914) report 7 individuals (from 5 families) harboring mostly de novo LMNB1 variants.
The common phenotype consisted of primary microcephaly (7/7 ranging from -4.4 to -10 SD), DD/ID (7/7), relative short stature in most (+0.7 to -4 SD). Additional features included brain MRI abnormalities (abnormal CC in 3, simplified gyral pattern in 3, small structurally normal brain, etc), seizures (4 individuals from 2 families), limb spasticity (1/7), cortical visual impairment (in 3), feeding difficulties (5/7), scoliosis (4/7). Non-overlapping dysmorphic features were reported in some.
Variants were identified by WES or custom-designed gene panel and included 3 missense variants, 1 in-frame deletion and a splice variant. The in-frame deletion was inherited from a similarly affected parent in whom the variant occurred as a dn event. The splice SNV(NM_005573.3:c.939+1G>A) occurred in 3 sibs and was present as mosaic variant (15%) in the parent. This variant was predicted to result to extension of exon 5 by 6 amino-acids (samples were unavailable for mRNA studies).
LMNB1 encodes a B-type lamin (the other being encoded by LMNB2). A- and B- type lamins are major components of the nuclear lamina. As the authors comment, LMNB1 is expressed in almost all cell types beginning at the earliest stages of development.
Lamin-deficient mouse models support an essential role of B-type lamins in organogenesis, neuronal migration, patterning during brain development.
Functional studies performed, demonstrated impaired formation of LMNB1 nuclear lamina in LMNB1-null HeLa cells transfected with cDNAs for 3 missense variants.
Two variants (Lys33Glu/Arg42Trp) were shown to result in decreased nuclear localization with increased abundance in the cytosolic fraction. In patient derived LCLs these variants led to abnormal nuclear morphology. A missense variant in another domain (Ala152Gly - 1st coil domain) resulted also in lower abundance of lamin B1, irregular lamin A/C nuclear lamina, as well as more condensed nuclei (HeLa cells).
LMNB1 duplications or missense mutations increasing LMNB1 expression are associated with a different presentation of AD leuodystrophy. A variant previously associated with leukodystrophy (Arg29Trp) was shown to behave differently (present in the nuclear extract but not in the cytosol, lamin B1 to A/C ratio in nuclear extract was not significantly altered compared to wt as was the case for Arg42Trp, Lys33Glu).
Given the pLI score of 0.55 as well as the phenotype of individuals with deletions (not presenting microcephaly) the authors predict that a dominant-negative effect applies (rather than haploinsufficiency).
Consider inclusion in the following panels : DD/ID (green), epilepsy (amber - 4 of 7 patients belonging to 2 families), primary microcephaly (green), callosome (amber/green - 3 individuals belonging to 3 families), mendeliome (green), etc.
Created: 18 Sep 2020, 12:04 a.m.
Mode of inheritance
MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Microcephaly; Short stature; Seizures; Abnormality of the corpus callosum; Cortical gyral simplification; Feeding difficulties; Scoliosis
Mode of pathogenicity
Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments
gene: LMNB1 was added gene: LMNB1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: LMNB1 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown Publications for gene: LMNB1 were set to 32910914 Phenotypes for gene: LMNB1 were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Microcephaly; Short stature; Seizures; Abnormality of the corpus callosum; Cortical gyral simplification; Feeding difficulties; Scoliosis Penetrance for gene: LMNB1 were set to unknown Mode of pathogenicity for gene: LMNB1 was set to Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments Review for gene: LMNB1 was set to GREEN