Intellectual disabilityGene: KAT8 No list
Green List (high evidence)
Eight unrelated individuals reported with de novo variants in this gene and a mouse model. All variants missense, in the chromobarrel domain or the acetyltransferase domain; three individuals had the same variant p.Tyr90Cys . One more individual reported with bi-allelic variants: one missense and one frameshift; carrier parents were normal suggesting that may be haploinsuffiency is not the mechanism.
Created: 8 Feb 2020, 8:53 a.m. | Last Modified: 8 Feb 2020, 8:53 a.m.
Panel Version: 3.0
Mode of inheritance
MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability; seizures; autism; dysmorphic features
Green List (high evidence)
Heterozygous pathogenic missense KAT8 variants have been reported in individuals with DD, ID and epilepsy. Variants occurred as de novo events within the chromobarrel or the acetyltransferase domain and were all shown to affect H4K16 acetylation, as would be predicted by the gene's function (lysine acetyltransferase). Evidence from brain specific Kat8 knockout in mouse, supports the role of the gene in brain development. One similarly affected individual compound heterozygous for a nonsense and a missense variant (the former affecting subnuclear localization and the latter H4K16ac) was also reported, with carrier relatives being unaffected. Mutations in genes of the MSL/NSL complexes (with which KAT8 forms multisubunit complexes) or genes in other acetyltransferases of the same subfamily (MYST) as KAT8 cause neurodevelopmental disorders [Details provided below].
Li et al. (2019 - PMID: 31794431) report on 8 unrelated individuals with heterozygous de novo pathogenic KAT8 variants, as well as an additional one compound heterozygous for a nonsense and a missense one.
Overlapping phenotype consisted of DD/ID (8/8), seizures/epilepsy (6/8), brain MRI anomalies as well as presence of variable facial dysmorphic features. Less frequent features included abnormal vision (5/8), feeding difficulties (3/8), cardiac anomalies (3/8), autism (in 1).
The (9th) individual with biallelic variants had similar phenotype of DD/ID, epilepsy, autism and dysmorphic facial features. Heterozygous parents and sister, the latter carrier for the missense variant, were all unaffected.
All individuals had undergone exome sequencing, while extensive other investigations for at least 7/9 had only revealed variants of uncertain significance/contribution to the phenotype or were normal.
KAT8 encodes lysine acetyltransferase 8, which acetylates histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16). It belongs to the MYST subfamily of lysine acetyltransferases, the other members of which include KAT6A, KAT6B (both involved in neurodevelopmental disorders) and KAT5.
KAT8 forms two stoichiometric multisubunitcomplexes, one with the MSL complex and the other with the NSL. Mutations in genes encoding for subunits of the NSL or MSL complex (eg. KANSL1 and MSL3) are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders.
Overall 6 missense SNVs were reported among the heterozygous patients, p.Tyr90Cys (NM_032188.2:c.269A>G) being a recurrent one seen in 3. The compound heterozygous patient had a missense (c.973C>T / p.Arg325Cys) and a nonsense variant (c.523A>T / p.Lys175*). All missense variants lied either in the chromobarrel domain or the acetyltransferase domain. Variants in the latter domain localized within the KAT8/Mof-specific region or - in the case of the compound heterozygous individual - within the acetyl-CoA binding motif.
FLAG-tagged KAT8 (either wt or for all missense SNVs) was transfected in HEK293 cells with vectors for HA-tagged MSL proteins. While the nonsense variant was difficult to express, missense SNVs were expressed to similar levels to wt, promoted expression of MSL proteins but resulted in defective H4K16 acetylation and to a lesser extent H4K5 acetylation. As a result all missense variants impaired acetylation. This was also the case for chromobarrel domain variants, while expression of a KAT8 lacking the chromobarrel domain confirmed its ability to form complex with the MSL proteins and the impairment of H4K16 acetylation.
The nonsense variant demonstrated abnormal subnuclear localization.
The mouse model provides extensive evidence for the involvement of KAT8 in cerebral development. Cerebrum-specific Kat8 knockout mice presented postnatal growth retardation, hyperactivity/irritability, pre-weaning lethality, and cerebral hypoplasia upon autopsy. Loss of Kat8 reduced the number of neural stem and progenitor cells available for embryonic cerebrocortical development, impaired cell proliferation and stimulated apoptosis. The article also provides additional evidence from mouse model.
Created: 15 Dec 2019, 9:28 p.m.
Mode of inheritance
BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Abnormality of vision; Feeding difficulties; Abnormality of the cardiovascular system; Autism
gene: KAT8 was added gene: KAT8 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: KAT8 was set to BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal Publications for gene: KAT8 were set to 31794431 Phenotypes for gene: KAT8 were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Abnormality of vision; Feeding difficulties; Abnormality of the cardiovascular system; Autism Penetrance for gene: KAT8 were set to unknown Review for gene: KAT8 was set to GREEN
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Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.