Intellectual disabilityGene: NSF Red List (low evidence)
I don't know
Not associated with relevant phenotype in OMIM or Gen2Phen (11/05/2021). At least two variants reported in two unrelated cases with epileptic encephalopathy of early infantile onset, one proband died at day 36 after birth of respirative failure, the other proband has profound intellectual disability, severe motor developmental delay, and no spontaneous respiration. Supportive functional studies in Drosophila were also presented (PMID 31675180).
Created: 11 May 2021, 6:15 p.m. | Last Modified: 11 May 2021, 6:15 p.m.
Panel Version: 3.1075
Comment on list classification: New gene submitted by expert reviewed. Based on the evidence provided it was decided that there is currently not enough evidence to establish a gene-phenotype association. Therefore, this gene has been given a Red rating.
Created: 26 Nov 2019, 2:58 p.m. | Last Modified: 26 Nov 2019, 2:58 p.m.
Panel Version: 2.1117
I don't know
Suzuki et al. (2019 - PMID: 31675180) report on 2 unrelated individuals with de novo missense NSF variants. Overall the phenotype corresponded to an early infantile epileptic encephalopathy. The first patient developed vomiting and tonic seizures immediately after birth, with burst-suppression pattern upon EEG. Trio exome sequencing, followed by Sanger sequencing of proband and parents, revealed a de novo missense variant (NM_006178.3:c.1375G>A / p.Ala459Thr), absent from public databases and predicted in silico to be deleterious (CADD score of 30). The girl died 36 days after birth due to respiratory failure. Another subject, having necessitated mechanical ventilation due to absence of spontaneous respiration after birth, developed myoclonic seizures. EEG showed a burst-suppression pattern. At the age of 3, she was noted to have persistence of seizures and profound ID. Trio exome sequencing identified a missense NSF variant (c.1688C>T / p.Pro563Leu) also confirmed and shown to be de novo by Sanger sequencing. Again the variant was absent from public datasets and had a CADD score of 34. While expression of wt NSF allele in the developing eye of Drosophila had no effect, expression of mutants severely affected eye development - suggesting a dominant negative effect. NSF encodes a homo-hexameric AAA ATPase, which is recruited by SNAPs (Soluble NSF Attachment Proteins) - and the latter by SNAREs (SNAP REceptors) - thus having a role in vesicular transport and membrane fusion. There is currently no associated phenotype in OMIM/G2P. Overall, this gene could be considered for inclusion probably with amber/red rating pending further evidence (eg. additional work-up or alternative causes/explanations not discussed).
Created: 11 Nov 2019, 5:36 p.m.
Mode of inheritance
MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Seizures; EEG with burst suppression; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability
Mode of pathogenicity
Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments
Gene: nsf has been classified as Red List (Low Evidence).
gene: NSF was added gene: NSF was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: NSF was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown Publications for gene: NSF were set to 31675180 Phenotypes for gene: NSF were set to Seizures; EEG with burst suppression; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability Penetrance for gene: NSF were set to unknown Mode of pathogenicity for gene: NSF was set to Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments Review for gene: NSF was set to AMBER
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.