Intellectual disabilityGene: PDE6D Amber List (moderate evidence)
Comment on list classification: Gene added by external reviewer, and promoted to Amber due to one family and a recent additional case.
Created: 29 Nov 2019, 2:44 p.m. | Last Modified: 29 Nov 2019, 2:44 p.m.
Panel Version: 2.1134
I don't know
Thomas et al. (2014 - PMID: 24166846) reported on a consanguineous Pakistani family with 3 members presenting variable polydactyly, brain anomalies (incl. molar tooth sign), microphthalmia/coloboma with retinal disease, renal hypoplasia suggestive of Joubert syndrome.
Genotyping with a SNP array identified a unique 17-Mb region of homozygosity on chr2 with LOD score of 2.6. The region contained 208 genes, of which 15 present in ciliary gene databases. A homozygous splicing variant appeared to be the only relevant, PDE6D being a ciliary gene within this region [NM_002601.4:c.140-1G>A]. Status of all affected members, parents and 2 unaffected sibs was verified with Sanger sequencing.
PDE6D encodes a phosphodiesterase that binds to prenyl groups and has a critical role in ciliogenesis (Humbert et al. - PMID: 23150559 and OMIM).
Several lines of evidence provided support a role for PDE6D and the reported variants :
- Study of PDE6D expression during human embryogenesis suggests ubiquitous localization and highest levels in organs affected in ciliopathies (CNS, kidney tubules, respiratory tract epitherlial cells).
- RT-PCR of mRNA from control/patient fibroblasts and sequencing confirmed the splicing defect leading to an in-frame deletion of exon 3.
- Wt and mutant protein both localized in the basal body of primary cilia (patient/control fibroblasts). Cilia in both cases had normal morphology.
- Experiments in RPE cells confirmed that INPP5E (involved in Joubert/MORM syndrome) interacts (/is probably a cargo of) PDE6D, a process dependent on prenylation.
- Exon 3 deletion was confirmed to disrupt PDE6D binding to INPP5E.
- Analysis by immunofluoresence of INPP5E localization using control/patient fibroblasts and renal tissue showed absence of INPP5E from primary cilia in the case of patient cells (but not controls) suggesting that PDE6D is important for trafficking INPP5E to the cilium.
- Previous study in mice suggested altered photoreceptor physiology in Pde6d (-/-) animals, resulting in a slowly progressing rod/cone dystrophy. The effect was however limited to the eye. (PMID cited : 17496142 - Zhang et al., 2007).
- Morpholino knockdown of pde6d resulted in pericardial edema, eye abnormalities (microphthalmia and disorganized retinal cell layers) and kidney morphogenesis defects (distended, blocked pronephric openings and proximal tubule cysts). Edema was rescued upon coinjection of morpholino with wt (but not mutant) mRNA. Similarly coinjection led to complete or partial rescue of eye development in the case of wt and mutant mRNA respectively supporting pathogenicity and (partial) loss-of-function effect for the variant.
Mégarbané et al. (2019 - PMID: 30423442) reported on an affected 6 month-old boy born to Lebanese first-cousin parents. Features included hypotonia, developmental delay, microcephaly, oculomotor apraxia, postaxial polydactyly of hands and feet and presence of a molar tooth sign upon brain MRI. Renal and retinal anomalies were absent (also given his age). Exome sequencing revealed homozygosity for a frameshift PDE6D variant [NM_002601.3:c.367_368insG or p.(Leu123Cysfs*13)]. Sanger sequencing confirmed presence of the variant in the proband and carrier status of the parents. The variant affected the penultimate exon (note : present in only this longest transcript) and was not predicted to trigger NMD but rather lead to elimination of a highly conserved PDZ-interaction domain.
The phenotype associated with biallelic PDE6D variants in OMIM is ?Joubert syndrome 22 - MIM 615665 based only on the 1st report ('delayed psychomotor development' among the features). There is no relevant entry in G2P. PDE6D is listed as a Current primary (/confirmed) ID gene in SysID (the aforementioned PMIDs cited).
This gene is included in gene panels for ID offered by some diagnostic laboratories (eg. GeneDx).
Overall PDE6D could be considered for inclusion in the ID panel probably with amber rating (2 families/variants, DD but outcome otherwise unknown - evidence for the the gene causing JS seems however sufficient).
Created: 11 Nov 2019, 4:42 p.m.
Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
?Joubert syndrome 22 - MIM 615665
Variants in this GENE are reported as part of current diagnostic practice
Gene: pde6d has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
gene: PDE6D was added gene: PDE6D was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: PDE6D was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal Publications for gene: PDE6D were set to 24166846; 30423442 Phenotypes for gene: PDE6D were set to ?Joubert syndrome 22 - MIM 615665 Penetrance for gene: PDE6D were set to Complete Review for gene: PDE6D was set to AMBER gene: PDE6D was marked as current diagnostic
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.