Intellectual disabilityGene: CAMK4 No list
Green List (high evidence)
3 publications by Zech et al (2018, 2020 - PMIDs : 30262571, 33098801, 33211350) provide clinical details on 3 individuals, each harboring a private de novo CAMK4 variant.
Overlapping features included DD, ID, behavoral issues, autism and abnormal hyperkinetic movements. Dystonia and chorea in all 3 appeared 3-20 years after initial symptoms.
CAMK4 encodes Calcium/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV, an important mediator of calcium-mediated activity and dynamics, particularly in the brain. It is involved in neuronal transmission, synaptic plasticity, and neuronal gene expression required for brain development and neuronal homeostasis (summary by OMIM based on Zech et al, 2018).
The 473 aa enzyme has a protein kinase domain (aa 46-300) and a C-terminal autoregulatory domain (aa 305-341) the latter comprising an autoinhibitory domain (AID / aa 305-321) and a calmodulin-binding domain (CBD / aa 322-341) [NP_001735.1 / NM_001744.4 - also used below].
Variants in all 3 subjects were identified following trio-WES and were in all cases protein-truncating, mapping to exon 10 or exon 10-intron 10 junction, expected to escape NMD and cause selective abrogation of the autoinhibitory domain (aa 305-321) leading overall to gain-of-function.
Variation databases include pLoF CAMK4 variants albeit in all cases usptream or downstream of this region (pLI of this gene in gnomAD: 0.51). Variants leading to selective abrogation of the autoregulatory domain have not been reported.
Extensive evidence for the GoF effect of the variant has been provided in the first publication. Several previous studies have demonstrated that abrogation of the AID domain leads to consitutive activation (details below).
Mouse models - though corresponding to homozygous loss of function - support a role for CAMKIV in cognitive and motor symptoms. Null mice display tremulous and ataxic movements, deficiencies in balance and sensorimotor performance associated with reduced number of Purkinje neurons (Ribar et al 2000, PMID: 11069976 - not reviewed). Wei et al (2002, PMID: 12006982 - not reviewed) provided evidence for alteration in hippocampal physiology and memory function.
Heterozygous mutations in other genes for calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CAMKs) e.g. CAMK2A/CAMK2B (encoding subunits of CAMKII) have been reported in individuals with ID.
The proband in the first publication (PMID: 30262571) was a male with DD, ID, behavioral difficulties (ASD, autoaggression, stereotypies) and hyperkinetic movement disorder (myoclonus, chorea, ataxia) with severe generalized dystonia (onset at the age of 13y). Brain MRI demonstrated cerebellar atrophy.
Extensive work-up incl. karyotyping, CMA, DYT-TOR1A, THAP1, GCH1, SCA1/2/3/6/7/8/12/17, Friedreich's ataxia and FMR1 analysis was negative.F
Trio WES identified a dn splice site variant (c.981+1G>A) in the last exon-intron junction. RT-PCR followed by gel electrophoresis and Sanger in fibroblasts from an affected and control subject revealed that the proband had - as predicted by the type/location of the variant - in equal amount 2 cDNA products, a normal as well as a truncated one.
Sequencing of the shortest revealed utilization of a cryptic donor splice site upstream of the mutated donor leading to a 77bp out-of-frame deletion and introduction of a premature stop codon in the last codon (p.Lys303Serfs*28). Western blot in fibroblast cell lines revealed 2 bands corresponding to the normal protein product as well as to the p.Lys303Serfs*28 although expression of the latter was lower than that of the full length protein.
Several previous studies have shown that mutant CAMKIV species that lack the autoinhibitory domain are consitutively active (several Refs provided). Among others Chatila et al (1996, PMID: 8702940) studied an in vitro-engineered truncation mutant (Δ1-317 - truncation at position 317 of the protein) with functionally validated gain-of-function effect.
To prove enhanced activity of the splicing variant, Zech et al assessed phosphorylation of CREB (cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein), a downstream substrate of CAMKIV. Immunobloting revealed significant increase of CREB phosphorylation in patient fibroblasts compared to controls. Overactivation of CAMKIV signaling was reversed when cells were treated with STO-609 an inhibitor of CAMKK, the ustream activator of CAMKIV.
Overall the authors demonstrated that loss of CAMKIV autoregulatory domain due to this splice variant had a gain-of-function effect.
Following trio-WES, Zech et al (2020 - PMID: 33098801) identified another relevant subject within cohort of 764 individuals with dystonia. This 12-y.o. male, harboring a different variant affecting the same donor site (c.981+1G>T), presented DD, ID, dystonia (onset at 3y) and additional movement disorders (myoclonus, ataxia) as well as similar behavior (ASD, autoaggression, stereotypies). [Details in suppl. p20].
Finally Zech et al (2020 - PMID: 33211350) reported on a 24-y.o. woman with adolescence onset choreodystonia. Other features included DD, moderate ID, absence seizures in infancy, OCD with anxiety and later diagnosis of ASD. Trio WES revealed a dn stopgain variant (c.940C>T; p.Gln314*).
There is no associated phenotype in OMIM, G2P, PanelApp AUS.
In SysID CAMK4 is listed among the current primary ID genes.
Please consider inclusion in other relevant panels.
Sources: Literature, Other
Created: 25 Jul 2021, 11:59 a.m.
Mode of inheritance
MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Autism; Behavioral abnormality; Abnormality of movement; Dystonia; Ataxia; Chorea; Myoclonus
gene: CAMK4 was added gene: CAMK4 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Other Mode of inheritance for gene: CAMK4 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown Publications for gene: CAMK4 were set to 30262571; 33098801; 33211350 Phenotypes for gene: CAMK4 were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Autism; Behavioral abnormality; Abnormality of movement; Dystonia; Ataxia; Chorea; Myoclonus Penetrance for gene: CAMK4 were set to Complete Review for gene: CAMK4 was set to GREEN
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.