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Intellectual disability

Gene: SLC35A3

Amber List (moderate evidence)

SLC35A3 (solute carrier family 35 member A3)
EnsemblGeneIds (GRCh38): ENSG00000117620
EnsemblGeneIds (GRCh37): ENSG00000117620
OMIM: 605632, Gene2Phenotype
SLC35A3 is in 5 panels

2 reviews

Rebecca Foulger (Genomics England curator)

Added watchlist tag.
Created: 14 Feb 2019, 5:03 p.m.
Comment on list classification: Updated rating from Grey to Amber. Gene was added to panel and rated Green by Konstantinos Varvagiannis. 1 case (multiple individuals from Ashkenazi Jewish kindred) in PMID:24031089. A second case comes from PMID:28328131 (Marini et al. 2017). ID is not recorded in the SLC35A3‐related skeletal dysplasia patient from PMID:28777481 who died at 21days. ClinVar submissions weren't included as additional cases as individual phenotypes were not recorded. Therefore rated Amber awaiting further published or clinical cases.
Created: 14 Feb 2019, 4:52 p.m.
The 2013 and 2016 ClinVar submissions SCV000699337.1 and SCV000108589.2 reported in the review by Konstantinos Varvagiannis link to the same publication: Edvardson et al. (2013, PMID:24031089).
Created: 14 Feb 2019, 4:29 p.m.
Marini et al. 2017 (PMID: 28328131) provide a second case. They report a non-consanguineous Italian family with two siblings manifesting a severe EE. Both siblings exhibited infantile spasms associated with focal and tonic seizures from early infancy. In addition, both had quadriplegia, acquired microcephaly and severe ID. WGS identified novel compound het variants in SLC35A3 in both children.
Created: 14 Feb 2019, 4:24 p.m.
Edvardson et al. (2013, PMID:24031089) report 8 patients from a large kindred of Ashkenazi Jewish descent with ?Arthrogryposis, mental retardation, and seizures (MIM:615553) and a compound het variant: Gln-172-Ter plus c.886A>G splice site variant. Varying degrees of ID was seen in 6 of 8 patients.
Created: 14 Feb 2019, 4:23 p.m.

Konstantinos Varvagiannis (Other)

Green List (high evidence)

Biallelic pathogenic variants in SLC35A3 cause Arthrogryposis, mental retardation, and seizures (MIM 615553).
Edvardson et al. (PMID: 24031089) report on 8 affected individuals from 3 nuclear Ashkenazi Jewish families. All harbored a nonsense [NM_012243.1:c.514C>T / p.(Gln172*)] as well as a missense variant [NM_012243.1:c.886A>G / p.(Ser296Gly)] in the compound heterozygous state. Most of the parents, who were heterozygous for the one or the other variant, were distantly related.

Common features included ASD (8/8), arthrogryposis (8/8), seizures (6/8) and intellectual disability (6/8 - variable degrees).

Upon cDNA studies, the (predicted) missense variant led to skipping of exon 8 and there was no normal size transcript (as would be expected for a variant of this type). Introduction of a premature stop codon due to this variant as well instability of the mRNA from the Gln172Ter allele was presumed to lead to absence of functional SLC35A3 protein.

Testing of 2045 Ashkenazi Jewish individuals revealed a carrier frequency of 1/205 for the missense variant in this community (with no occurrence of the nonsense variant).

SLC35A3 is a nucleotide sugar transporter that transports (uniquely) UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) from the cytoplasm where it is synthesized to its site of use in the Golgi. Proper function of such transporters is essential for biosynthesis of glycoproteins, glycolipids and proteoglycans.

Although the transport of UDP-GlcNAc is mediated also by other less specific transporters, members of the SLC35 family, reduced transport was shown in patient fibroblasts compared to controls. In addition an abnormal N-glycan profile was shown in patient fibroblasts (but was not the case in serum).

Biallelic SLC35A3 mutations in cattle were previously shown to cause a Complex Vertebral Malformation (CVM) syndrome characterized by abnormal growth, vertebral and heart malformations as well as arthrogryposis (Thomsen et al. - PMID: 16344554). Arthrogryposis as well as some skeletal features observed in patients were similar to those of the animal model.
Marini et al. (PMID: 28328131) report on 2 sibs compound heterozygous for a missense and a frameshift variant [NM_012243.2:c.73C>T or p.(Arg25Cys) and c.899_900delTTinsA or p.(Leu300Glnfs*6)]. Hypotonia, DD with ID, early-onset seizures and arthrogryposis were features in both. Severe scoliosis was also noted in the younger sib.
Edmondson et al. (PMID: 28777481) report on a neonate (follow-up till the 21st day of life) with extensive vertebral anomalies (butterfly vertebrae, hemibertebrae, sagittal clefts, scoliosis), heart defects (PFO, PDA) and arthrogryposis. Presence of hypotonia or other neurologic features (eg. seizures) is not commented on. Conventional caryotype and SNP-array analysis were normal apart from the presence of ROH regions due to parental consanguinity. Exome sequencing revealed only a homozygous missense SNV [c.74G>T or p.(Arg25Leu) - NP_036375.1] which was supported by an abnormal N-glycan profile. As proposed for the bovine model (PMID: 16344554) and discussed in this article, similarity of the skeletal/congenital heart defects with those observed in Alagille syndrome might be due to some of the Notch functions being dependent upon N-acetylglucosamine modification.
In ClinVar :

There is a further submission of p.Ser296Gly as pathogenic (SCV000699337.1 - 2016) apart from the submission by OMIM (SCV000108589.2 - 2013). The associated condition is Arthrogryposis, mental retardation, and seizures.

A frameshift variant [NM_012243.2(SLC35A3):c.680dup (p.Asp227Glufs)- SCV000826704.1 - April 2018] as well as an intragenic deletion [NC_000001.10:g.(?_100472570)_(100477109_?)del (GRCh37) - SCV000837123.1 - June 2018] have both been submitted as pathogenic, associated with Arthrogryposis, mental retardation, and seizures. (Note: due to the different submission dates, one can presume that these variants were found in different individuals).
SLC35A3 is not associated with any phenotype in G2P.
It is included in gene panels for ID offered by some diagnostic laboratories.
As a result, this gene can be considered for inclusion in the ID panel probably as green (or amber)
[Consider upgrade of this gene to green in other panels (eg. CDGs, arthrogryposis, IEMs) and/or inclusion in other possibly relevant panels.]
Sources: Literature
Created: 25 Dec 2018, 3:38 p.m.

Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal

?Arthrogryposis, mental retardation, and seizures (MIM 615553)


Variants in this GENE are reported as part of current diagnostic practice


Mode of Inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
  • Expert Review Amber
  • ?Arthrogryposis, mental retardation, and seizures (MIM 615553)
Clinvar variants
Variants in SLC35A3
Panels with this gene

History Filter Activity

14 Feb 2019, Gel status: 2

Added Tag

Rebecca Foulger (Genomics England curator)

Tag watchlist tag was added to gene: SLC35A3.

14 Feb 2019, Gel status: 2

Entity classified by Genomics England curator

Rebecca Foulger (Genomics England curator)

Gene: slc35a3 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).

25 Dec 2018, Gel status: 0

Created, Added New Source, Set mode of inheritance, Set publications, Set Phenotypes, Set penetrance

Konstantinos Varvagiannis (Other)

gene: SLC35A3 was added gene: SLC35A3 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: SLC35A3 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal Publications for gene: SLC35A3 were set to 24031089; 28328131; 28777481; 16344554 Phenotypes for gene: SLC35A3 were set to ?Arthrogryposis, mental retardation, and seizures (MIM 615553) Penetrance for gene: SLC35A3 were set to Complete Review for gene: SLC35A3 was set to GREEN gene: SLC35A3 was marked as current diagnostic