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Intellectual disability

Gene: SLC35B2

Amber List (moderate evidence)

SLC35B2 (solute carrier family 35 member B2)
EnsemblGeneIds (GRCh38): ENSG00000157593
EnsemblGeneIds (GRCh37): ENSG00000157593
OMIM: 610788, Gene2Phenotype
SLC35B2 is in 3 panels

2 reviews

Sarah Leigh (Genomics England Curator)

Comment on list classification: The evidence for this gene is sufficient for an amber rating. Although supportive functional evidence is presented in PMID: 35325049, the presence of other variants in both cases reported in this article, means that further evidence is required for SLC35B2 to be rated Green.
Created: 11 Aug 2022, 12:51 p.m. | Last Modified: 11 Aug 2022, 12:51 p.m.
Panel Version: 3.1672

Konstantinos Varvagiannis (Other)

I don't know

2 unrelated individuals with biallelic SLC35B2 variants have been reported. DD and ID were part of the phenotype.

There is currently no associated phenotype in OMIM/G2P/SysID. The gene has amber rating in the leukodystrophies panel of PanelApp Australia.

Consider inclusion in the current panel (or other possibly relevant ones eg. for skeletal disorders, short stature, white matter disorders, corpus callosum, etc) with amber rating.

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Guasto et al (2022 - PMID:35325049) report 2 unrelated individuals with biallelic SLC35B2 variants.

SLC35B2 encodes solute carrier family 35 (3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) transporter), member B2.

The protein is located in the Golgi membrane and serves as transporter of the activated nucleotide sulfate PAPS from the cytosol, where it is synthesized to the Golgi lumen. Another PAPS transporter is encoded by SLC35B3. In the Golgi apparatus PAPS serves as substrate of sulfotransferases for the addition sulfate to the covalently attached GAG chains of proteoglycans (PGs).

The phenotype corresponded to a chondrodysplasia manifesting as severe pre- and postnatal growth retardation (height <-4 SD and -8 SD), early scoliosis, multiple joint dislocations (in one). There was severe DD affecting motor and expressive language development with associated ID. Brain imaging was suggestive of hypomyelinating leukodystrophy with thin corpus callosum and cerebral atrophy. One individual had a cleft palate in the context of Pierre Robin sequence.

Both individuals were investigated with exome sequencing.

The first individual - born to consanguineous parents - was homozygous for an in-frame del (NM_178148.3:c.1218_1220del, p.Leu407del) with Sanger sequencing confirming the variants, and heterozygosity in parents and 2 unaffected sibs. There was an initially identified hmz CUL7 variant (for 3M syndrome), which was not felt sufficient to explain the severity of the phenotype and notably ID.

The 2nd proband was homozygous for a fs variant (c.1224_1225delAG / p.Arg408SerfsTer18 - leading to loss of the last 8 amino acids) occurring in the context of uniparental isodisomy [iUPD(6)] spanning the complete chr6 based on the exome data.

Among the evidence presented for SLC35B2 and the variants :
- SLC35B2 has high mRNA expression in fetal and adult mouse brain and other tissues.
- Upon qPCR analysis of mRNA expression in human brain samples, the gene had expression across the brain (frontal lobe grey matter, subcortical frontal white matter/cerebellum).
- High expression was shown upon analysis of mouse brain single cell RNA data (EMBL) in oligodendrocytes and microglial cells.
- RT-PCR on mRNA from skin fibroblasts (both individuals) revealed significant decrease of SCL35B2 mRNA levels compared to controls.
- Transfection of C-terminal c-myc tagged wt or mutant proteins in HEK293F cells, followed by western blotting did not reveal significant difference at the protein level. Wt SLC35B2 localized at the Golgi apparatus as suggested by colocalization with GM130 marker. The 2 variants however displayed only partial colocalization (/loss of localization specificity) with diffuse signal in the cell.
- Chondroitin sulfate disaccharide sulfation was decreased upon HPLC disaccharide analysis in patient fibroblasts and bikunin (a circulating proteoglycan in blood) electrophoretic pattern in patient sera.
- Disorders due to variants in genes implicated in proteoglycan biogenesis (e.g. XYLT1, B3GALT6, CHSY1) are associated with skeletal/connective tissue manifestations with DD/ID.
- C-elegans model lacking pst-1 (SLC35B2 ortholog) provides support that the protein is required for migration, axonal guidance, and presynaptic development in a subset of neurons.
- dsm-1 - the rat ortholog - is expressed in rat brain in D-serine and NMDA receptor rich regions. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes it accelerated the efflux of D-serine (a co-agonist for NMDA receptor).
- Variants in other members of SLC superfamily (e.g. SLC17A5, SLC35A3, SLC29A3, SLC35A2) have been associated with brain-bone phenotypes.
Sources: Literature
Created: 15 Apr 2022, 1:40 p.m.

Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal

Phenotypes
Abnormality of the skeletal system; Short long bone; Short stature; Abnormality of epiphysis morphology; Scoliosis; Multiple joint dislocation; Global develpmental delay; Intellectual disability; CNS hypomyelination; Abnormality of the corpus callosum; Cerebral atrophy; Abnormality of the amniotic fluid

Publications

Details

Mode of Inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Sources
  • Expert Review Amber
Phenotypes
  • Abnormality of the skeletal system
  • Short long bone
  • Short stature
  • Abnormality of epiphysis morphology
  • Scoliosis
  • Multiple joint dislocation
  • Global develpmental delay
  • Intellectual disability
  • CNS hypomyelination
  • Abnormality of the corpus callosum
  • Cerebral atrophy
  • Abnormality of the amniotic fluid
OMIM
610788
Clinvar variants
Variants in SLC35B2
Penetrance
Complete
Publications
Panels with this gene

History Filter Activity

11 Aug 2022, Gel status: 2

Entity classified by Genomics England curator

Sarah Leigh (Genomics England Curator)

Gene: slc35b2 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).

15 Apr 2022, Gel status: 0

Created, Added New Source, Set mode of inheritance, Set publications, Set Phenotypes, Set penetrance

Konstantinos Varvagiannis (Other)

gene: SLC35B2 was added gene: SLC35B2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: SLC35B2 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal Publications for gene: SLC35B2 were set to 35325049 Phenotypes for gene: SLC35B2 were set to Abnormality of the skeletal system; Short long bone; Short stature; Abnormality of epiphysis morphology; Scoliosis; Multiple joint dislocation; Global develpmental delay; Intellectual disability; CNS hypomyelination; Abnormality of the corpus callosum; Cerebral atrophy; Abnormality of the amniotic fluid Penetrance for gene: SLC35B2 were set to Complete Review for gene: SLC35B2 was set to AMBER