Intellectual disabilityGene: FDFT1 Amber List (moderate evidence)
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Comment on list classification: Expert review by Konstantinos Varvagiannis on FDFT1 following a publication by Coman et al. (2018 - PMID: 29909962) reported on 3 relevant individuals from 2 unrelated families.
FDFT1 is in OMIM based on this paper. As there are only two families classifying FDFT1 as Amber until more evidence is available.
Created: 27 Nov 2019, 11:09 a.m. | Last Modified: 27 Nov 2019, 11:09 a.m.
Panel Version: 2.1122
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Biallelic pathogenic FDFT1 variants cause Squalene synthase deficiency (MIM 618156). 3 individuals from 2 families (and 3 variants) have been reported. DD, ID and seizures are part of the phenotype (3/3). The metabolic profile observed is specific and highly suggestive of disruption of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway (at the specific level) while the clinical presentation is similar to other disorders of the pathway (SLO). The effect of 2 variants has been studied in detail (in one case mis-splicing demonstrated and in the other regulatory effect). Overall, this gene could be considered for inclusion in the ID/epilepsy panel with amber rating. As the gene is currently present only in the DDG2P panel, please consider adding it to relevant ones (eg. IEMs, undiagnosed metabolic disorders, etc). [Details provided below].
Coman et al. (2018 - PMID: 29909962) reported on 3 relevant individuals from 2 unrelated families.
The phenotype consisted of seizures (3/3 - neonatal onset - generalized), profound DD (ID can be inferred from the description in the supplement), variable brain MRI abnormalities (white matter loss, hypoplastic CC), cortical visual impairment, dry skin with photosensitivity as well facial dysmorphic features. Male subjects presented genital anomalies (cryptorchidism/hypospadias).
FDFT1 encodes squalene synthase, the enzyme which catalyzes conversion of farnesyl-pyrophosphate to squalene - the first specific step in cholesterol biosynthesis.
A specific pattern of metabolites was observed in all, similar to a pattern previously observed in animal models/humans treated with squalene synthase inhibitor or upon loading with farnesol (in animals). Overall the pattern was suggestive of a cholesterol biosynthesis defect at the level of squalene synthase as suggested by increased total farnesol levels (farnesyl-pyrophosphate + free farnesol), reduced/normal squalene, low plasma cholesterol as well as other metabolites.
Clinical features also resembled those observed in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (another disorder of cholesterol biosynthesis).
WES was carried out in affected individuals and their parents and revealed for sibs of the first family, compound heterozygosity for a maternally inherited 120-kb deletion spanning exons 6-10 of FDFT1 and CTSB and a paternally inherited FDFT1 variant in intron 8 (TC deletion/AG insertion). Variant studies for the latter included:
- Minigene splice assay demonstrating retention of 22 bp in intron 8.
- Partial splicing defect with both nl and mis-spliced cDNA (patient fibroblasts)
- Reduced protein levels in lymphoblasts/fibroblasts from both sibs upon Western blot.
Contribution of the CTSB deletion was considered unlikely (carrier mother was unaffected).
As for the 2nd family, WES data allowed identification of a homozygous deep-intronic (although this is transcript-specific) 16-bp deletion in the proband. Parents were carriers. For the specific variant :
- cDNA studies failed to detect 3 (of 10) isoforms which are normally present in control fibroblasts. Eventual NMD (which would be predicted if the deletion resulted in splicing defect) was eliminated given the absent effect of cyclohexamide addition, thus suggesting a regulatory effect.
- Given a predicted promoter/enhancer effect of the deleted region, a luciferase assay performed, suggested that the sequence had promoter capacity, with the construct containing the 16-bp deletion showing reduced promoter activity.
Fdft1 knockout mice demonstrate embryonic lethality around mid-gestation while they exhibit severe growth retardation and defective neural tube closure.
In G2P FDFT1 is associated with 'Defect in Cholesterol Biosynthesis' (confidence:possible/biallelic/LoF). The gene belongs to the Current primary ID gene group of SysID. It is not commonly included in gene panels for ID offered by diagnostic laboratories.
Created: 11 Nov 2019, 3:49 p.m.
Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Profound global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Abnormality of nervous system morphology; Cortical visual impairment; Abnormality of the skin; Abnormality of the face
Gene: fdft1 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
gene: FDFT1 was added gene: FDFT1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: FDFT1 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal Publications for gene: FDFT1 were set to 29909962 Phenotypes for gene: FDFT1 were set to Profound global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Abnormality of nervous system morphology; Cortical visual impairment; Abnormality of the skin; Abnormality of the face Penetrance for gene: FDFT1 were set to Complete Review for gene: FDFT1 was set to AMBER
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.