Intellectual disabilityGene: DALRD3 No list
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Biallelic pathogenic DALRD3 variants cause ?Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 86 (# 618910).
Lentini et al (2020 - PMID: 32427860) report 2 sibs born to first cousin parents, homozygous for a DALRD3 pathogenic variant.
Both exhibited hypotonia, severe global DD and epilepsy (onset of seizures at the age 6-7m, poorly controlled by AEDs in one) corresponding overall to an developmental and epileptic encephalopathy. The authors reported subtle dysmorphic features. Other findings included GI concerns (in both) with microcephaly, CHD or renal anomalies in the younger.
WES in both followed by autozygome analysis revealed homozygosity for a DALRD3 stopgain variant (NM_001009996.3:c.1251C>A/pTyr417*) with Sanger sequencing confirming status of the children and carrier state of the parents.
DALRD3 encodes DALR anticodon-binding domain-containing protein 3. A DALR
As the authors demonstrate, and (better) summarized in OMIM, its product is a tRNA-binding protein that interacts with METTL2 to facilitate 3-methylcytosine (m3C) modification - by METTL2 - at position 32 of the anticodon loop in specific arginine tRNAs, namely tRNA-Arg-UCU and tRNA-Arg-CCU. In particular, DALRD3 seems to serve as discrimination factor required for recognition of these specific tRNAs.
In addition to DALRD3, a DALR anticodon-binding domain is also found in arginyl-tRNA synthetases (the cytoplasmic RARS1, and mitochondrial RARS2).
Given the variant type observed, predicting truncation of the protein and/or NMD, in LCLs from the 2 sibs (and comparison with controls) the authors demonstrated that the levels of full-length DALRD3 were decreased in cell lysates, with severe reduction (/loss) of m3C modification of the specific arginine tRNAs, which was not observed for other tRNAs (eg. tRNA-Ser-UGA) or controls. These findings were suggestive of c.1251C>A / pTyr417* being a partial LoF allele.
As the authors discuss, defects in tRNA modification have been associated with numerous human - among others neurological and neurodevelopmental - disorders (cited PMID: 30529455, table 1 of this review summarizing these incl. ADAT3-, PUS3-, TRMT1- related NDDs, etc).
Consider inclusion in the current panel with amber rating.
Created: 2 May 2022, 10:12 a.m. | Last Modified: 2 May 2022, 10:14 a.m.
Panel Version: 3.1561
Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
?Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 86, # 618910
gene: DALRD3 was added gene: DALRD3 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: DALRD3 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal Publications for gene: DALRD3 were set to 32427860 Phenotypes for gene: DALRD3 were set to ?Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 86, # 618910 Penetrance for gene: DALRD3 were set to Complete Review for gene: DALRD3 was set to AMBER
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.