Intellectual disabilityGene: CDK10 Green List (high evidence)
Comment on list classification: Changed from Red to Green. Appropriate phenotype, sufficient cases and external expert review all support gene-disease association and relevance to this panel to rate gene as Green.
Created: 21 Feb 2019, 3:29 p.m.
Comment on publications: Added publication suggested by external reviewer to support gene-disease association, and upgrading of the gene to Green
Created: 21 Feb 2019, 3:25 p.m.
Green List (high evidence)
Biallelic pathogenic variants in CDK10 cause Al Kaissi syndrome (MIM 617694).
Windpassinger et al. (PMID: 28886341) report on 9 individuals from 5 consanguineous families.
The phenotype consisted of developmental delay, intellectual disability (all), growth retardation, spine malformations, and common facial features.
4 pathogenic variants are reported and each was found in the homozygous state in affected individuals [using NM_052988.4 as a reference : c.609-G>A, c.608+1G>A (2 families), c.139delG, as well as an intragenic deletion]. The splice site mutations were shown to behave as LoF (both resulted in frameshift or internal truncation, significantly reduced expression levels and reduced CDK10 activity was demonstrated for 1 variant).
Cdk10-knockout in mice reproduced - at least partly - the human phenotypes. Additional functional studies suggest ciliary defects might contribute to the phenotype.
CDK10 is included in the DD panel of G2P associated with Severe Growth Retardation, Spine Malformations, and Developmental Delays (ID among the assigned phenotypes).
This gene is included in gene panels for ID offered by diagnostic laboratories (incl. Radboudumc).
As a result CDK10 should be considered for upgrade to green.
Created: 20 Dec 2018, 11:09 a.m.
Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Al Kaissi syndrome (MIM 617694)
Variants in this GENE are reported as part of current diagnostic practice
Gene: cdk10 has been classified as Green List (High Evidence).
Mode of inheritance for gene: CDK10 was changed from to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: CDK10 were set to
Phenotypes for gene: CDK10 were changed from to Al Kaissi syndrome, 617694; intellectual disability
gene: CDK10 was added gene: CDK10 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Victorian Clinical Genetics Services Mode of inheritance for gene: CDK10 was set to
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.