Intellectual disabilityGene: LMBRD2 Amber List (moderate evidence)
Comment on mode of pathogenicity: Both of the references for this entry suggest a gain-of-function action for LMBRD2 variants.
Created: 11 Feb 2021, 10:57 a.m. | Last Modified: 11 Feb 2021, 10:57 a.m.
Panel Version: 3.779
Comment on list classification: New gene added by Konstantinos Varvagiannis. Rating Amber but there is a sufficient number of unrelated cases with the relevant phenotype to rate this gene GREEN at the next major review.
Created: 2 Sep 2020, 1:12 p.m. | Last Modified: 19 Oct 2020, 2:51 p.m.
Panel Version: 3.461
I don't know
You may consider inclusion with green (13 individuals with dn missense SNVs overall, overlapping features for 10 with available phenotype / a recurring variant has been identified in 2 different studies) or amber rating (role of the gene not known, no variant studies, animal model probably not available).
► Malhotra et al (2020 - PMID: 32820033) report on 10 unrelated individuals with de novo missense LMBRD2 variants.
Features included DD (9/10), ID (6/8 of relevant age), microcephaly (7/10), seizures (5/10 - >=3 different variants), structural brain abnormalities (e.g. thin CC in 6/9), highly variable ocular abnormalities (5/10) and dysmorphic features in some (7/10 - nonspecific).
All had variable prior non-diagnostic genetic tests (CMA, gene panel, mendeliome, karyotype). WES/WGS revealed LMBRD2 missense variants, in all cases de novo. A single individual had additional variants with weaker evidence of pathogenicity.
5 unique missense SNVs and 2 recurrent ones (NM_001007527:c.367T>C - p.Trp123Arg / c.1448G>A - p.Arg483His) were identified. These occurred in different exons. Variants were not present in gnomAD and all had several in silico predictions in favor of a deleterious effect.
There was phenotypic variability among individuals with the same variant (e.g. seizures in 1/3 and microchephaly in 2/3 of those harboring R483H).
The gene has a pLI of 0 (although o/e ranges from 0.23 to 0.55), %HI of 15.13 and z-score of 2.27. The authors presume that haploinsufficiency may not apply, and consider a gain-of-function/dominant-negative effect more likely.
As the authors comment LMBRD2 (LMBR1 domain containing 2) encodes a membrane bound protein with poorly described function. It is widely expressed across tissues with notable expression in human brain (also in Drosophila, or Xenopus laevis). It displays high interspecies conservation.
It has been suggested (Paek et al - PMID: 28388415) that LMBRD2 is a potential regulator of β2 adrenoreceptor signalling through involvement in GPCR signalling.
► Kaplanis et al (2020 - https://doi.org/10.1101/797787) in a dataset of 31058 parent-offspring trios (WES) previously identified 3 individuals with developmental disorder, harboring c.1448G>A - p.Arg483His. These individuals (1 from the DDD study, and 2 GeneDx patients) appear in Decipher. [ https://decipher.sanger.ac.uk/ddd/research-variant/40e17c78cc9655a6721006fc1e0c98db/overview ]. The preprint by Kaplanis et al is cited by Malhotra et al, with Arg483His reported in 6 patients overall in both studies.
Created: 22 Aug 2020, 11:04 a.m.
Mode of inheritance
MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Microcephaly; Seizures; Abnormality of nervous system morphology; Abnormality of the eye
Mode of pathogenicity for gene: LMBRD2 was changed from None to Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments
Gene: lmbrd2 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Tag for-review tag was added to gene: LMBRD2.
gene: LMBRD2 was added gene: LMBRD2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: LMBRD2 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown Publications for gene: LMBRD2 were set to 32820033; https://doi.org/10.1101/797787 Phenotypes for gene: LMBRD2 were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Microcephaly; Seizures; Abnormality of nervous system morphology; Abnormality of the eye Penetrance for gene: LMBRD2 were set to unknown Review for gene: LMBRD2 was set to AMBER
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.