Intellectual disabilityGene: NTNG2 Green List (high evidence)
Comment on list classification: Gene added by external reviewer and rated Green. 11 unrelated families reported with homozygous variants in this gene with a neurodevelopmental disorder including global developmental delay, plus functional evidence. Promoted to Green.
Created: 27 Nov 2019, 5:38 p.m. | Last Modified: 27 Nov 2019, 5:38 p.m.
Panel Version: 2.1128
Green List (high evidence)
 Abu-Libdeh et al. (2019 - PMID: 31372774) reported 8 individuals from 4 unrelated consanguineous families of Arab Muslim origin, all homozygous for NM_032536.3:c.376dup - p.(Ser126PhefsTer241). Common features included hypotonia, failure to achieve milestones and developmental stagnation without regression during the first year (~9m) of life and severe ID. Minimal purposeful hand use (grasping and bringing objects to mouth), hand stereotypies and bruxism were also observed. Microcephaly and impaired growth were almost universal (with the exception of 2 having an OFC at ~10% percentile). Relevant previous investigations were normal in all and included MECP2, SMN1, aCGH, metabolic testing, etc. The variant was identified by exome in all, and Sanger confirmed with compatible segregation studies in parents and sibs. The variant was found within a shared haplotype of ~4.35 Mb, probably due to a founder effect.
 Dias et al. (2019 - PMID: 31668703) described 16 individuals from 7 unrelated families from Iran, Mexico, Turkey, Egypt and Bangladesh. Parents were known to be consanguineous or shown to be distantly related. All patients were homozygous for missense variants private to each family (7 variants) identified following exome sequencing. Shared features incl. hypotonia, GDD, severe to profound ID and behavioral anomalies incl. autistic features/stereotypies (most), screaming/laughing spells (most), bruxism. Microcephaly (5/14), growth below average/FTT and GI problems were also observed.
Epilepsy was reported in 5 individuals belonging to 4 different families in these 2 studies (5/24 overall / 4 variants).
Netrin-G2, the encoded protein, is bound to the plasma membrane by GPI-anchors. Netrins-G2 and G1 (another member of the Netrin-G subfamily) are enriched in presynaptic terminals. Interaction with their cognate Netrin-G ligand trans-synaptic partners / receptors (NGL2, NGL1 respectively) has been shown to promote axon outgrowth, induce and maintain excitatory synapse formation. Complementary and non-overlapping expression in the developping and mature CNS has been shown for Netrin-G2/1 in mice (several references provided by Abu-Libdeh / Dias).
Variant effect : The frameshift variant was not studied by Abu-Libdeh et al. Variants in the 2nd ref. were all missense, displayed no-specific localization and were suggested to affect protein stability and/or expression at the cell surface as 4/7 involved loss or addition of cystein residues (possibly creating unpaired cysteins) and 2 of the remaining 3 were predicted to affect the hydrophobic core. In line with this, overexpression of wt/variant constructs in HeLa cells demonstrated substantially decreased cell surface expression for all variants.
Mouse models/phenotypes : Dias et al. showed that siRNA-mediated Ntng2 knockdown in N2a cells led to significant reduction in neurite number and length. Studied previously, Ntng2 knockout mice display impaired learning, memory, visual and motor functioning (PMID cited : 26746425).
NTNG2 is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM/G2P. SysID lists it among the candidate ID genes, citing PMID: 29302074 (not here reviewed & NTNG2 not in the main text).
Overall this gene can be considered for inclusion in the ID panel probably as green (>3 individuals/families/variants, consistent phenotype in both reports, role of the gene, in silico and in vitro studies, animal model, etc) or amber.
[Please consider inclusion in other panels if relevant eg. ASD panel (many individuals having autistic / Rett-like features or epilepsy) or epilepsy (>3 individuals/families/variants although most families were also consanguineous)]
Created: 11 Nov 2019, 4:34 p.m.
Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Central hypotonia; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Behavioral abnormality; Microcephaly; Seizures
Phenotypes for gene: NTNG2 were changed from Central hypotonia; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Behavioral abnormality; Microcephaly; Seizures to Neurodevelopmental disorder with behavioral abnormalities, absent speech, and hypotonia, OMIM:618718
Gene: ntng2 has been classified as Green List (High Evidence).
gene: NTNG2 was added gene: NTNG2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: NTNG2 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal Publications for gene: NTNG2 were set to 31372774; 31668703 Phenotypes for gene: NTNG2 were set to Central hypotonia; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Behavioral abnormality; Microcephaly; Seizures Penetrance for gene: NTNG2 were set to Complete Review for gene: NTNG2 was set to GREEN
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.