Intellectual disabilityGene: MORC2 Amber List (moderate evidence)
Green List (high evidence)
Comment on list classification: Though signs suggestive of neuropathy were observed in the cohort presented by Sacoto et al (PMID:32693025), these were not the predominant feature of the disease presentation or the primary indication for diagnostic testing. Inclusion on this panel would be of value for detecting such cases, and so this gene should be promoted to Green at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag)
Created: 8 Dec 2020, 11:44 a.m. | Last Modified: 8 Dec 2020, 11:44 a.m.
Panel Version: 3.639
New gene-disease association identified by reviewer Konstantinos Varvagiannis. MORC2 variants have commonly been associated with CMT, presenting axonal neuropathy with progressive weakness, muscle cramps and sensory impairment. However, Sacoto et al (2020) present a cohort of 20 individuals (19 kindreds) in whom the primary indication for testing was developmental delay or growth failure (1 exception with a diagnosis of sensorimotor neuropathy). Among other features, variable degree of ID was commonly reported (11 mild, 1 mild-to-moderate, 3 moderate, 3 severe).
Created: 8 Dec 2020, 11:34 a.m. | Last Modified: 8 Dec 2020, 11:34 a.m.
Panel Version: 3.638
Mode of inheritance
MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Growth retardation; Microcephaly; Craniofacial dysmorphism
Green List (high evidence)
The current review is based on a recent report by Sacoto et al (2020 - https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.06.013).
While several previous studies focused on the phenotype of axonal motor and senory neuropathy in individuals with heterozygous MORC2 pathogenic variants (Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, axonal, type 2Z, MIM #616688) some of them presented among others with hypotonia, muscle weakness, intellectual disability, microcephaly or hearing loss [refs provided by Sacoto et al - learning disabilities (in some patients) also listed in OMIM's clinical synopsis].
Sacoto et al present a cohort of 20 individuals having genetic testing for developmental delay or growth failure (with a single one for a diagnosis of sensorimotor neuropathy).
Overlapping features included DD, ID (18/20 - mild to severe), short stature (18/20), microcephaly (15/20) and variable craniofacial dysmorphisms. The authors comment that features suggestive of neuropathy (weakness, hyporeflexia, abnormal EMG/NCS) were frequent but not the predominant complaint. EMG/NCS abnormalities were abnormal in 6 out of 10 subjects investigated in this cohort. Other findings included brain MRI abnormalities (12/18 - in 5/18 Leigh-like lesions), hearing loss (11/19) and pigmentary retinopathy in few (5).
Affected subjects were found to harbor in all cases missense variants in the ATPase module of MORC2 [residues 1 to 494 - NM_001303256.1 - the module consists of an ATPase domain (aa 1-265), a transducer S5-like domain (266-494) and a coiled-coiled domain (CC1 - aa 282-361)].
Variants had occured mostly as de novo events although inheritance from a similarly affected parent was also reported.
Some of them were recurring within this cohort and/or the literature eg. c.79G>A/p.Glu27Lys (x5), c.260C>T/p.Ser87Leu (x2), c.394C>T/p.Arg132Cys (4x), c.1164C>G/p.Ser388Arg (x2), c.1181A>G/p.Tyr394Cys (x3).
MORC2 encodes an ATPase involved in chromatin remodeling, DNA repair and transcriptional regulation. Chromatin remodeling and epigenetic silencing by MORC2 is mediated by the HUSH (Human Silencing Hub) complex. Functional studies (MORC2-knockout HeLa cells harboring a HUSH-sensitive GFP reporter were transduced with wt or mt MORC2 followed by measurement of reporter repression) supported the deleterious effect of most variants known at the time (hyperactivation of HUSH-mediating silencing, in line with previous observations).
Overall this gene can be considered for inclusion in the ID panel with green rating. Also other gene panels (e.g. for short stature, microcephaly, hearing loss, pigmentary retinopathy, etc) if it meets the respective criteria for inclusion.
Created: 26 Jul 2020, 7:45 a.m.
Mode of inheritance
MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, axonal, type 2Z, MIM #616688
Mode of pathogenicity
Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments
Phenotypes for gene: MORC2 were changed from Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, axonal, type 2Z, MIM #616688 to Developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Growth retardation; Microcephaly; Craniofacial dysmorphism; Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, axonal, type 2Z, OMIM:616688
Publications for gene: MORC2 were set to https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.06.013
Gene: morc2 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Tag for-review tag was added to gene: MORC2.
gene: MORC2 was added gene: MORC2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: MORC2 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown Publications for gene: MORC2 were set to https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.06.013 Phenotypes for gene: MORC2 were set to Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, axonal, type 2Z, MIM #616688 Penetrance for gene: MORC2 were set to unknown Mode of pathogenicity for gene: MORC2 was set to Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments Review for gene: MORC2 was set to GREEN
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.