Intellectual disabilityGene: NEUROD2 Amber List (moderate evidence)
Green List (high evidence)
Comment on list classification: There is enough evidence to rate this gene as Green at the next GMS panel update - sufficient number of unrelated cases (4, plus 1 unpublished), all presenting GDD as an early feature. Particularly pertinent to less severely affected individuals who do not develop seizures.
Created: 21 Apr 2021, 3:51 p.m. | Last Modified: 21 Apr 2021, 3:51 p.m.
Panel Version: 3.1035
NEUROD2 is associated with a relevant phenotype in OMIM (MIM# 618374), but is not yet listed in Gene2Phenotype.
- PMID: 30323019 (2019) - Two unrelated children with refractory early-infantile epileptic encephalopathy. Developmental delay (DD) preceded onset of seizures in both cases, with signs of DD becoming evident at 2-4 months and seizures arising at 5 months of age. Patient 1 became seizure-free after introducing a ketogenic diet at 16 months; however, an EEG at 22 months remained abnormal and she continues to have severe GDD with no independent sitting, walking or speaking at the chronological age of 3 years and 2 months. Patient 2 became seizure-free when a vagal nerve stimulator (VNS) was placed at 16 months of age. He displayed significant improvement on EEG and subsequently began regaining neurodevelopmental milestones.
WES revealed different de novo variants in the NEUROD2 gene (P1: c.388G>C, p.E130Q; P2: c.401T>C, p.M134T, respectively). Knockdown of the neurod2 in Xenopus tropicalis tadpoles resulted in abnormal swimming behaviour and progressive seizures followed by periods of immobility. Overexpression of wild-type human NEUROD2 in tadpoles induced non-neuronal cells to differentiate into neurons - on the other hand, overexpression of the mutant alleles failed to to cause any (p.E130Q) or a comparable degree (p.M134T) of ectopic neuronal induction as seen with the wild-type protein.
- Conference poster (Genomics of Rare Disease 2021) - 'Neuronal Differentiation Factor 2 (NEUROD2) Pathogenic Variant as a Molecular Aetiology of Infantile Spasm ' by Sakpichaisakul et al, QSNICH, Thailand -
In a 15 month-old female with infantile spasm, trio exome sequencing revealed a de novo variant in NEUROD2 (c.388G>C, p.E130Q). She was born of non-consanguineous healthy parents with no family history of epilepsy. Poor eye contact and no social smile were noted in the first few months, followed by the first infantile spasm at 5 months of age. This was initially controlled by combined vigabatrin and prednisolone therapy - however relapsing seizures were detected at 15 months. Sequential treatment with vigabatrin following prednisolone resulted in cessation of seizures, and subsequently regaining of neurodevelopmental milestones (sitting without support, grabbing objects without pincer grasp and speaking one single word)
----- Cases without seizures -
- PMID: 33438828 (2021) - Adolescent (14 yrs old) with GDD but without seizures who was found to have a novel de novo NEUROD2 missense variant (c.488 T > C, p.L163P). An additional individual (12 yrs) with DD and a different missense NEUROD2 (c.703G>A, p.A235T) was also identified, but lacking parental samples for segregation analysis.
Functional analysis in Xenopus laevis revealed that injection of the p.L163P mRNA variant resulted in a defective ability to induce ectopic neurons in tadpoles as compared with wild-type NEUROD2 mRNA, while the p.A235T variant functioned similarly to wild-type.
Created: 21 Apr 2021, 3:39 p.m.
Mode of inheritance
MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 72, OMIM:618374
Gene: neurod2 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
gene: NEUROD2 was added gene: NEUROD2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Q2_21_rating tags were added to gene: NEUROD2. Mode of inheritance for gene: NEUROD2 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted Publications for gene: NEUROD2 were set to 16504944; 30323019; 33438828 Phenotypes for gene: NEUROD2 were set to Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 72, OMIM:618374 Review for gene: NEUROD2 was set to GREEN
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.