Intellectual disabilityGene: GABRA2 Green List (high evidence)
Comment on list classification: Updated rating from Grey to Green: GABRA2 was added to the panel and rated Green by Konstantinos Varvagiannis. Not yet associated with a disorder in Gene2Phenotype but there are sufficient cases from from the literature (PMIDs:29422393, 29961870, 31032849, https://doi.org/10.1101/678219) of GABRA2 variants associated with developmental delay/intellectual disability.
Created: 20 Sep 2019, 12:46 p.m. | Last Modified: 20 Sep 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Panel Version: 2.1025
Summary of evidence (refer to Konstantinos Varvagiannis' review for further details):
PMID:29422393, Orenstein et al., 2018 report a male of unrelated Ashkenazi Jewish parents with EIEE-78 and a de novo heterozygous variant in GABRA2 (N335H). Development was severely delayed. Functional studies were not performed but the variant was absent in ExAC and gnomAD controls.
PMID:29961870, Butler et al. 2018 report an 11 year old girl with EIEE-78 and a de novo heterozygous variant in GABRA2 (T292K). Development was delayed, the patient was nonverbal and had profound intellectual disability plus microcephaly.
PMID:31032849, Maljevic et al., 2019 decribe 5 patients (3 sporadic cases and 2 siblings) with four novel de novo GABRA2 missense variants (Val284Ala, Leu291Val, Met263Thr, Phe325Leu). All patients showed some degree of ID (mild to profound).
https://doi.org/10.1101/678219: Sanchis-Juan et al., 2019 identified a de novo missense variant in GABRA2 gene (Pro280Leu) in a 10 year old girl with EIEE and developmental delay. At age-10, she had severe
impairment of language, hand stereotypies, disruptive behavior and repetitive movements.
Created: 20 Sep 2019, 12:46 p.m. | Last Modified: 20 Sep 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Panel Version: 2.1024
Added 'missense' tag: all variants reported so far are missense.
Created: 20 Sep 2019, 12:44 p.m. | Last Modified: 20 Sep 2019, 12:44 p.m.
Panel Version: 2.1024
Green List (high evidence)
Heterozygous pathogenic GABRA2 variants cause Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 78 (MIM 618557) [new OMIM entry].
At least 8 relevant individuals have been reported to date in the following studies:
- Orenstein et al. (2018 - PMID: 29422393) - 1 individual
- Butler et al. (2018 - PMID: 29961870) - 1 subject
- Maljevic et al. (2019 - PMID: 31032849 - 3 unrelated children as well as 2 affected sibs
- Sanchis-Juan et al. (2019 - bioRxiv / https://doi.org/10.1101/678219) - 1 further patient
In all affected individuals the variants were missense and - in almost all cases - had occurred as de novo events. The 2 sibs reported by Maljevic however, had inherited a missense variant from their unaffected mosaic parent.
Clinical descriptions for individuals from the 3 studies are provided in OMIM and also summarized, Maljevic - Table 1 (7 patients) and/or in the suppl. table 1 by Sanchis-Juan et al. (8 patients) (https://www.biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2019/06/21/678219/DC2/embed/media-2.xlsx). Seizures, DD and ID (relevant to the current panel) are among the reported features. Functional studies have been performed for most of the variants and are summarized for each one in the OMIM entry for GABRG2 and the aforementioned table as well.
The following variants have been reported (NM_000807.2): c.1003A>C - p.Asn335His (dn) / c.875C>A - Thr292Lys (dn) / c.871C>G - p.Leu291Val (dn) / c.788T>C - p.Met263Thr (dn) / c.851T>C - p.Val284Ala (dn) / c.975C>A - p.Phe325Leu (inherited from mosaic parent) / c.839C>T - p.Pro280Leu (dn - Sanchis-Juan et al).
As commented by Jenkins and Escayg (2019 - PMID: 31032848 / both among the authors of the 1st report) as well as by Sanchis-Juan et al., both loss- and gain- of function effects explain the pathogenicity of the various mutations reported to date. [In gnomAD GABRA2 has a Z-score for missense variants of 3.13 as well as a pLI of 1].
GABRA2 is not associated with any phenotype in G2P.
This gene is not commonly included in gene panels for ID offered by diagnostic laboratories.
As a result, GABRA2 can be considered for inclusion in the epilepsy and ID panels probably as green (several relevant individuals, several reported variants with supporting functional studies for most, etc.).
[Consider inclusion in other possibly relevant gene panels eg. for ASD which was feature in some patients at relevant age and/or among those evaluated].
Created: 8 Sep 2019, 4:17 p.m. | Last Modified: 10 Sep 2019, 7:17 a.m.
Panel Version: 2.1022
Mode of inheritance
MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 78 (MIM 618557)
Gene: gabra2 has been classified as Green List (High Evidence).
Phenotypes for gene: GABRA2 were changed from Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 78, 618557) to Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 78, 618557; intellectual disability; developmental delay
Tag missense tag was added to gene: GABRA2.
Phenotypes for gene: GABRA2 were changed from Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 78 (MIM 618557) to Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 78, 618557)
gene: GABRA2 was added gene: GABRA2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: GABRA2 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown Publications for gene: GABRA2 were set to 29422393; 29961870; 31032849; 31032848; doi.org/10.1101/678219 Phenotypes for gene: GABRA2 were set to Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 78 (MIM 618557) Penetrance for gene: GABRA2 were set to unknown Review for gene: GABRA2 was set to GREEN
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.