COVID-19 researchGene: CD28
Evidence Summary from Illumina curation team: CD28 is a transmembrane receptor expressed on the surface of T cells and is required for the immune cell activation and proliferation of naïve and memory T cells. CD28 knockout mice have an increased susceptibility to ECTV, a host specific virus which causes mousepox. Upon infection, CD28 deficient mice showed a 40% mortality within 14 days while wild-type control mice did not show any symptoms of disease (Fang et al. 2008). In cell culture experiments, CD28 protein surface levels were found to be downregulated by HIV-1 accessory proteins Nef and Vpu (Pawlak et al. 2018). In severe cases of COVID-19 infection, immuno-dysregulation may lead to a decrease of CD28+ cytotoxic suppressor T cells (Tufan et al. 2020, review)
PMID: 29329537; Pawlak et al.(2018) - CD28 is a transmembrane receptor expressed on the surface of T cells. It is essential for immune cell activation and proliferation of naïve and memory T cell. Cell culture experiments using CD4+ Sup-T1 cells or primary CD4+ T cells and infected with VSV-G pseudotyped NL4.3 viruses showed that the HIV-1 accessory proteins Nef and Vpu modify the immune response and increase viral persistence by decreasing the cell surface levels of CD28 (fig.1).
PMID: 32299202; Tufan et al. (2020) Review. SARS-CoV-2 infection can lead to immune dysregulation through affecting the subset of T cells. In severe cases of COVID-19 infection, it was observed that the percentage of naïve helper T cells amplifies while the percentage of memory helper T cells and CD28+ cytotoxic suppressor T cells decreases.
PMID: 17114476; Fang et al. (2008) - CD28 KO mice in a mousepox-resistant B6 background infected with ECTV showed a 40% mortality 7–14 days PI (Fig. 1A) and all remaining CD28KO mice developed mousepox (Fig. 1, B and C). All control wild-type B6 mice survived the infection without any symptoms of disease. CD28 KO mice that survived past 14 days PI gradually recovered from the disease and survived indefinitely. A comparison of CD8+ T cell responses to ECTV and VACV suggests that the main reason for the susceptibility of CD28 KO mice to mousepox is a reduced response at the early stages of infection.
Created: 28 May 2020, 3:15 p.m. | Last Modified: 28 May 2020, 3:15 p.m.
Panel Version: 0.348
Identified through an OMIM search for potential viral susceptibility genes, and subsequently triaged/reviewed by Illumina curation team.
Created: 28 May 2020, 12:36 p.m. | Last Modified: 28 May 2020, 12:36 p.m.
Panel Version: 0.336
gene: CD28 was added gene: CD28 was added to COVID-19 research. Sources: Expert list,OMIM,Expert Review Amber Mode of inheritance for gene: CD28 was set to Unknown