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COVID-19 research


Amber List (moderate evidence)

FURIN (furin, paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme)
EnsemblGeneIds (GRCh38): ENSG00000140564
EnsemblGeneIds (GRCh37): ENSG00000140564
OMIM: 136950, Gene2Phenotype
FURIN is in 1 panel

2 reviews

Rebecca Foulger (Genomics England curator)

Comment on list classification: Updated rating from Red to Amber: Although no SNP studies, or potential variants identified yet, recent papers (e.g. PMID:32362314) and preprints have identified a role for Furin protease activity in SARS-CoV-2 entry into human cells. Therefore changes to Furin sequence could potentially alter viral susceptibility.
Created: 12 May 2020, 9:57 a.m. | Last Modified: 12 May 2020, 9:57 a.m.
Panel Version: 0.210
PMID:32362314. Hoffmann et al., 2020 report that Furin cleaves the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein at the S1/S2 site, and that cleavage is essential for S-protein-mediated cell-cell fusion and entry into human lung cells. Therefore furin may be a potential target for therapuetic intervention.
Created: 12 May 2020, 9:54 a.m. | Last Modified: 12 May 2020, 9:54 a.m.
Panel Version: 0.209
PMID:25974265. Hardes et al., 2015. Furing is required for H7N1 and H5N1 influenza virus infection, probably by cleaving hemagglutinin. Therefore inhibition of Furin is a potential strategy for short-term treatment of acute infectious diseases, including avian influenza.
Created: 12 May 2020, 9:54 a.m. | Last Modified: 12 May 2020, 9:54 a.m.
Panel Version: 0.209
FURIN present in the UniProt COVID portal: (May 11th 2020 Release).
Created: 12 May 2020, 9:48 a.m. | Last Modified: 12 May 2020, 9:48 a.m.
Panel Version: 0.209

Eleanor Williams (Genomics England Curator)

Preprint: Klaassen et al - performed analysis of variants in FURIN, PLG, PRSS1, TMPRSS11a, MBL2 and OAS1 genes in 143 unrelated individuals from Serbian population and identified 22 variants with potential functional effect. Then used in-silico prediction and comparative population analysis and found two rare variants in FURIN p.Thr33Ala and p.Gly146Ser. p.Gly146Ser. is predicted to be deleterious and may change its ability
to cleave furin-like sites in the S protein of the SARS-CoV-2.
Created: 22 May 2020, 10:15 a.m. | Last Modified: 22 May 2020, 10:15 a.m.
Panel Version: 0.299
Preprint - Zhong et al
Found Furin is expressed in oral mucosal cells. A Furin cutting site has been identified in SARS-CoV-2 ( - preprint)
Sources: Literature
Created: 23 Apr 2020, 5:02 a.m.

Mode of inheritance


Mode of Inheritance
  • Expert Review Amber
  • Literature
Clinvar variants
Variants in FURIN
Panels with this gene

History Filter Activity

12 May 2020, Gel status: 2

Set publications

Rebecca Foulger (Genomics England curator)

Publications for gene: FURIN were set to

12 May 2020, Gel status: 2

Entity classified by Genomics England curator

Rebecca Foulger (Genomics England curator)

Gene: furin has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).

23 Apr 2020, Gel status: 1

Created, Added New Source, Set mode of inheritance

Eleanor Williams (Genomics England Curator)

gene: FURIN was added gene: FURIN was added to Viral susceptibility. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: FURIN was set to Unknown