Genes in panel
STRs in panel
Prev Next

COVID-19 research

Gene: TNF

Green List (high evidence)

TNF (tumor necrosis factor)
EnsemblGeneIds (GRCh38): ENSG00000232810
EnsemblGeneIds (GRCh37): ENSG00000232810
OMIM: 191160, Gene2Phenotype
TNF is in 4 panels

2 reviews

Alison Coffey (Illumina Clinical Services Laboratory, Illumina Inc.)

Green List (high evidence)

Mode of inheritance


Sarah Leigh (Genomics England Curator)

Red List (low evidence)

Comment on list classification: Various publications demonstrating associations between TNF variants and viral infection susceptibility and progression.
Created: 15 Jun 2020, 5:17 p.m. | Last Modified: 15 Jun 2020, 5:17 p.m.
Panel Version: 1.56
TNF was identified through an OMIM search for potential viral susceptibility genes. Initial triage by Illumina (Alison Coffey and team) was given a Tier 3 grouping (experimental evidence and association data consistent with viral susceptibility). Illumina review: PMID: 10719836: Herbein et al. (Review) TNF is a proinflammatory cytokine plays a key role in the host response to viral infection. TNF enhances or inhibits viral replication depending on the virus involved and the cell type infected. The binding of TNF to the TNF receptors can activate, differentiate, or kill target cells thereby interfering with the viral life cycle. In contrast, viruses have evolved to appropriate the TNF/TNFR pathway to evade immune responses and favor viral dissemination. From OMIM: PMID: 12915457;Kim et al. (2003) To investigate whether TNF-alpha promoter polymorphisms are associated with clearance of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, Kim et al. (2003) genotyped 1,400 Korean subjects, 1,109 of whom were chronic HBV carriers and 291 who spontaneously recovered. The TNF promoter alleles that were previously reported to be associated with higher plasma levels (presence of -308A or the absence of -863A alleles), were strongly associated with the resolution of HBV infection. Haplotype analysis revealed that TNF-alpha haplotype 1 (-1031T; -863C; -857C; -308G; -238G; -163G) and haplotype 2 (-1031C; -863A; -857C; -308G; -238G; -163G) were significantly associated with HBV clearance, showing protective antibody production and persistent HBV infection, respectively (P = 0.003-0.02). From OMIM: PMID: 11506397 Quasney et al. The presence of the A allele at the TNF-alpha-308 site was overrepresented among adults with HIV dementia compared to those without dementia (0.28 vs 0.07; OR 5.5; 95% CI 1.8-17.0) and a healthy control population (0.28 vs 0.11). The increased frequency of the A allele in HlV-infected adults with dementia suggests that this locus may play a role in the pathophysiology of dementia and suggests a genetic predisposition for the development of HIV dementia. PMID: 26657940 García-Ramírez et al. (2015) - 145 patients with influenza A (H1N1) (pA/H1N1), 133 patients with influenza-like illness (ILI), and 360 asymptomatic healthy contacts (AHCs) were included from a Mexican population were studied. The TNF-238 GA genotype was associated with an increased risk of disease severity (OR =16.06, p = 0.007). PMID: 31986264: Huang et al. (2020) Study of 41 patients admitted to hospital with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV. Compared with non-ICU patients, ICU patients had higher plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines including IL2, IL7, IL10, GSCF, IP10, MCP1, MIP1A, and TNFα.
Created: 11 Jun 2020, 6:10 p.m. | Last Modified: 12 Jun 2020, 11:08 a.m.
Panel Version: 1.38
Haplotypes of TNF promoter polymorphisms are associated with clearance of hepatitis B virus infection in Korean subjects (PMID 12915457).
Created: 4 May 2020, 3:17 p.m. | Last Modified: 4 May 2020, 3:17 p.m.
Panel Version: 0.176



Mode of Inheritance
  • Expert Review Green
  • OMIM
Clinvar variants
Variants in TNF
Panels with this gene

History Filter Activity

15 Jun 2020, Gel status: 3

Entity classified by Genomics England curator

Sarah Leigh (Genomics England Curator)

Gene: tnf has been classified as Green List (High Evidence).

15 Jun 2020, Gel status: 1

Set mode of inheritance

Sarah Leigh (Genomics England Curator)

Mode of inheritance for gene: TNF was changed from to Unknown

12 Jun 2020, Gel status: 1

Set publications

Sarah Leigh (Genomics England Curator)

Publications for gene: TNF were set to

21 Apr 2020, Gel status: 1

Created, Added New Source, Set mode of inheritance

Sarah Leigh (Genomics England Curator)

gene: TNF was added gene: TNF was added to Viral susceptibility. Sources: OMIM Mode of inheritance for gene: TNF was set to